Economics, while frequently acknowledged as a vital component of citizenship education in both the popular and educational press, has been a controversial and contested component of the school curriculum. Recent trends in economic education are manifestations of the perennial issues regarding economic knowledge in the education of citizens and how best to provide teachers with a fund of economic knowledge and materials.
TREND 1: ECONOMICS AND CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION
The nature of citizenship education remains a constant topic of debate in the social studies literature. Given the economic changes accompanying the collapse of the Soviet Union, as well as the perennial issue of the relationship of economic understanding and disposition to the education of citizens in a democracy, it is not surprising that this topic is receiving a lot of attention (Branson 1991). Interest in economics as a core component of citizenship education has resurged.
TREND 2: ECONOMIC EDUCATION IN RUSSIA AND EASTERN EUROPE
Interrelated with the education of citizens is the issue of the role of economic education in Russia and the newly independent states. Democracy and capitalism require a degree of participatory decision making that was neither practiced in society nor taught in the schools of former communist countries in Central and Eastern Europe. The last five years have witnessed a number of economic education programs involving exchanges between Central and Eastern Europeans and American economics educators which have promoted teaching and learning about market-based economic systems and democratic governance.
TREND 3: THE GLOBAL ECONOMY
Economic education throughout much of the 1960s and 1970s concentrated on the application of economic concepts to understanding and analyzing the economy of the United States. Beginning in the 1970s with the oil embargo, the growth of the Japanese economy, and more recently the global ecological issues and political events in Central and Eastern Europe, economic education increasingly has become concerned with international issues. Recent articles and teaching materials have focused on the Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and Latin American economies, as well as the Central and East European economic situation. International trade on a global scale is highlighted in recent publications of the National Council on Economic Education.
TREND 4: CONTENT STANDARDS
Economic education has followed the national trend of creating content standards. Economic educators at the national and state levels have developed content standards delineating the knowledge and application skills which students should possess at various grade levels. "The Voluntary National Content Standards in Economics," developed and published by the National Council on Economic Education (NCEE), are written in the form of propositions. They include the key concepts that have traditionally served as the framework for economic education materials developed by the National Council on Economic Education. See "A Framework for Teaching Basic Economic Concepts," which provides an explanation of key economic concepts and recommendations for sequencing them within the curriculum (Saunders and Gilliard, 1995).
Each content standard is accompanied by a rationale explaining its significance, as well as the performances of students required to demonstrate achievement of this knowledge at the 4th, 8th, and 12th grade levels. The twenty content standards embody the essential principles of economics and the essential reasoning and decision-making skills that indicate what students should be able to do with their knowledge of economics.
TREND 5: USE OF COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY IN ECONOMIC EDUCATION
The efficiency of technology holds out the prospect of improved economic education as students gain access to almost unlimited sources of data. Teachers unsure of their economic knowledge are able to almost instantly find answers to questions. Most important, when time is scarce, teachers will have access to lesson plans without having to leaf through a number of separate sources of information.
Economic education has been modified through the Internet access that many teachers and students now enjoy. Students have instant access to data that was unimaginable five years ago. Teachers, for example, can type in http://www.3.mgmt.purdue.edu/icee/ on their World Wide Web browser and gain access to the "Indiana Council for Economic Education" (ICEE) homepage and from there link to more information about the World Wide Web.
The Internet is not the sole source of economic education materials. "Virtual Economics," a CD-ROM program, places the Library of Materials developed by the National Council on Economic Education at the disposal of the classroom teacher. The initial program was distributed to more than 50,000 teachers and administrators in a series of workshops during 1996. Similar to the original version, the new 2.0 program will operate on Microsoft Windows 3.1, Windows 95, Windows NT, or Macintosh II, provided the computer has a 13" color monitor, a sound card and speakers, and a minimum of eight megabytes of RAM.
The updated "Virtual Economics" program will retain the two-fold structure of the original version: a 3-D Interactive Center for Economics and a Resource Library. New features in the updated version include advanced placement economics resources, the national and state content standards in economics, and materials related to The Stock Market Game. "Virtual Economics" will enable teachers to instantly access lesson plans by grade level and content. Furthermore, teachers will be able to print out a majority of these materials for classroom use. The programs provide teachers with multiple explanations for concepts they may not understand, or find difficult to teach.
Information about "Virtual Economics" or other materials developed and disseminated by the National Council on Economic Education, including "The Voluntary National Content Standards in Economics," may be obtained at the following Internet address: http://www.economicsamerica.org/ or by writing or telephoning the NCEE at: 1140 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10036; Telephone: (800) 338-1192; Fax: (212) 730-1793.
Boldt, David J. "The Internet: A Curriculum Warehouse for Social Studies Teachers." Social Studies 86 (May-June 1995): 105-112. EJ 510 826.
Branson, Margaret. "The Education of Citizens in a Market Economy and Its Relationship to a Free Society." Paper presented to the International Conference on Western Democracy and Eastern Europe: Political, Economic, and Social Changes, Berlin, Germany, 1991. ED 345 995.
Handley, Leslie Mills, ed. "Global Economics, Curriculum Concerns." Social Studies and the Young Learner 6 (March-April 1994): 17-18. EJ 490 096.
Miller, Steven L. "Conceptualizing Global Economic Education." International Journal of Social Education 8 (Winter 1993-94): 49-58. EJ 490 078.
Miller, Steven L. "Essential Economics for Civic Education in Former Communist Countries of Central and Eastern Europe," in Richard C. Remy and Jacek Strzemieczny, eds. BUILDING CIVIC EDUCATION FOR DEMOCRACY IN POLAND. Bloomington, IN: ERIC Clearinghouse for Social Studies/Social Science Education and National Council for the Social Studies, 1996. ED 396 986.
National Council on Economic Education. "Voluntary National Content Standards in Economics." National Council on Economic Education: New York, 1997.
Oulton, Christopher R., and Others. "The Interdependence of Environmental Education and Economic and Industrial Understanding Within the School Curriculum." International Journal of Environmental Education and Information 11 (January-March 1992): 1-10. EJ 449 802.
Priest, Quinton. "Teaching about Korea in the Global Economy: Suggestions for Secondary Teachers." Social Studies 85 (September-October 1994): 211-217. EJ 492 075.
Saunders, Phillip, and June Gilliard, eds. A Framework for Teaching Basic Economic Concepts. New York: National Council on Economic Education, 1995.
Schug, Mark C. "Teaching about the Economics of Government." Social Education 54 (February 1990): 87-89, 99. EJ 404 468.
Shen, Ruth, and Others. "Economic Thinking in China: Economic Knowledge and Attitudes of High School Students." Journal of Economic Education 24 (Winter 1993): 70-84. EJ 473 635.
Walstad, William B. "High School Economics in an International Perspective: Implications for Economic Education in Russia." Paper presented at the International Conference on the Present and Future of Economic Education in Russia, Moscow. April 26-28, 1994. ED 380 368.