ERIC Identifier: ED410321 Publication Date: 1996-10-00
Author: Schwartz, Wendy Source: ERIC Clearinghouse on
Urban Education New York NY.
An Overview of Strategies To Reduce School Violence. ERIC/CUE
Digest No. 115.
Violence among youth, especially in schools, is one of American society's
most pressing concerns. It is also a source of controversy. While no recent
nationwide study of the real extent of youth violence is available, small-scale
and regional studies indicate that youth violence is increasing, at least
slightly. In addition, youth, like adults, are now more frequently using guns
instead of fists to settle disputes. And, lastly, whereas youth violence had
once been thought to be an urban public school problem and a consequence of
poverty and family dysfunction, stable suburban and rural communities are now
also experiencing it, as are private schools.
However, despite sensational anecdotal media reports suggesting that the
public is generally unsafe because of youth lawlessness, it is likely that youth
violence is not as pervasive as is feared. In fact, some who spend their workday
in schools think that they are among the safest places a child can be. Further,
recent surveys indicate that the most prevalent type of youth crime is theft,
and the most common types of violence are fist fights, bullying, and shoving
While the public is ready to believe that school violence is ever-present,
some local leaders and school administrators are not willing to acknowledge its
occurrence on their own watch. Their position is based on the fear that people
will boycott communities and schools labeled unsafe, and that they will be
blamed for failing to keep the peace. Gang activity at school is particularly
susceptible to "the Ostrich syndrome," as administrators may ignore the problem.
An unfortunate consequence of such denial is that opportunities to reduce
violence are lost.
Finally, there is sometimes a contradiction between school policies and
practice. Whereas many districts and schools have comprehensive regulations for
dealing with violence, enforcement may be uneven or lax. This creates a
situation where teachers do not feel supported when they impose discipline,
students do not feel protected, and the violence-prone think they will not be
punished. Conversely, administrators express dismay that teachers do not enforce
policies in their classrooms.
Despite these inconsistencies, many promising types of anti-violence
strategies, focusing on both discipline and social and personal transformation,
have been devised by government, communities, and schools. Most have originated
in urban areas, where youth violence was first identified. This digest reviews a
variety of the policies, programs, and practices to prevent youth violence
(which are described more fully in the publications cited at the end), so that
local leaders can base decisions about their own efforts on the experience of
PUBLIC SUPPORT OF VIOLENCE PREVENTION
Legislation now exists at all levels of government
to reduce the availability of guns, particularly the sale of weapons to minors.
Weapons offenses are adjudicated more harshly in general, and the practice of
trying violent juvenile offenders as adults is growing. Some states now hold
parents legally responsible for certain behavior of their children, such as
truancy and delinquency.
To deal specifically with violence in schools, President Bill Clinton signed
the 1994 Gun-Free Schools Act, mandating a one-year expulsion for students who
bring weapons to school and bolstering the "zero tolerance" for weapons policies
of some states and school districts already in existence. The Federal
government, and most states, also make funds available for prevention activities
through anti crime and education legislation. These include anti-gang programs
and other very focused prevention education, as well as more general
Community activities frequently focus
on breaking family cycles of violence. The most effective are long-term
interventions providing a range of family services. They involve the
collaborative efforts of religious and recreational organizations; social
service, public housing and health agencies; the business community; the
schools; and law enforcement agencies. For example, programs in parenting skills
and family relationships, particularly those focusing on nonviolent living
skills and recovery from substance abuse, can protect children from learning
violence at home. Programs in conflict resolution and anger management are
similar to those discussed below that are designed for students.
Out-of-school programs (either independently operated or school-sponsored)
keep youth constructively engaged when their families are unavailable, and
provide them with attention from caring adults and good role models. They also
keep youth away from negative influences on the street and television violence.
Programs can also offer educational enrichment and assistance with school work,
and help participants develop positive values. Those most effective at violence
prevention actively pursue the prevention goals of local schools and serve as
extensions of school prevention activities.
Helping young people find employment is an important way for communities to
reduce property crime and help build adolescents' self-esteem and sense of
responsibility. Having a job also helps youth appreciate how important staying
in school is to their future career plans.
Community campaigns to supplement school programs against gangs are crucial
because gang membership cuts across school lines. In fact, there is gang
activity in all 50 states now, and gangs recruit and are active nationwide.
Effective anti- gang programs include crisis intervention teams comprised of the
police, probation officers, and community leaders; intensive community, family,
and youth education programs; alternative youth activities; and a long-term
SCHOOL DISTRICT AND SCHOOL INITIATIVES
policies and programs run the gamut from general educational improvement efforts
to interventions that target specific types of illegal or anti- social behavior.
The most effective are directed by a clearly-defined administrative entity, and
have line-item budgetary status. They involve parents in a variety of roles and,
as appropriate, also draw on community leaders and resources.
OVERALL SCHOOL IMPROVEMENT
In recognition of the fact that
student misbehavior (and even gang membership) can be a reaction to ineffective
schooling and to feelings of frustration and failure, some districts are
restructuring schools to increase student engagement, attendance, and
performance. Indeed, school reform programs around the country, especially those
requiring strong family involvement, report increased attendance and student
satisfaction. Many schools that cannot totally restructure still strive to
better meet the education needs of students through more accurate identification
of learning disabilities and personal attention. A related reform is downsizing
schools, since it has been widely documented that smaller schools have fewer
disruptions and incidences of violence.
Schools can also reduce violence by promoting mutual respect among all
members of their community, student self-respect, and appreciation for
diversity. They demonstrate respect for students through availability of good
facilities and resources, such as up-to-date textbooks, laboratories, and
computer equipment. It is also believed that the appearance of a school adds to
the perception of safety, and that a well cared for school is less susceptible
to vandalism and violence. Unfortunately, schools in urban areas, where violence
can be a particular problem, are among the most overcrowded and poorly equipped
SCHOOL SAFETY POLICIES
Institutionalization of a code of
conduct demonstrates a commitment to violence prevention and helps staff and
students feel safe. The code should clearly explain school rules and punishments
for infractions. A cornerstone of all policies is the Federally-mandated "zero
tolerance for guns" provision. Some schools also institute zero tolerance
provisions for other types of offenses, such as assaulting a teacher, so that
violent students can be removed from regular classrooms. Because some disruptive
students might welcome expulsion, many policies assert that the school response
to certain specified acts will be legal prosecution.
Policies can be created at three levels: district, school, and classroom.
Since there are different concerns at each one, it is reasonable for students to
be governed by several complementary policies. Collaborative development by
administrators, teachers, parents, and even students, with a review for legal
compliance, helps ensure that a policy will be respected and enforced.
Periodically reviewing a policy for appropriateness, effectiveness, and
completeness maintains its usefulness over time. Copies are given to
administrators, teachers, parents, and students. Students may also have the
rules explained to them in assembly or a classroom to be sure they understand
the purpose of the rules, the parameters of acceptable behavior, and the
consequences of infractions.
SCHOOL SECURITY. The most common
school security measure is the monitoring of students when they move through the
hallways and in places where they congregate, such as restrooms and the
cafeteria. School staff members have traditionally served as monitors, but
increasingly schools are hiring security guards to patrol the building and to
provide security at events. In the most violence-prone areas schools may form
partnerships with the police to visit periodically or even to patrol the halls
regularly. However, some educators believe that a police presence has a negative
impact on teaching and learning and that the need for them is an indication of
administrative failure. Others welcome police support but provide special
training for dealing with students in a school environment. Probation officers
with on- site offices can provide help to students who have already engaged in
Some schools use parents as monitors and teachers' aides. Doing this is
inexpensive and can be an effective deterrent, since students may be more
reluctant to behave badly when watched by someone they regularly see in the
neighborhood. Further, involving parents gives them a sense of ownership of
anti-violence efforts and may help them reconsider their own attitudes about
To keep students from bringing in weapons some schools use metal detectors
and others administer systematic or random searches of students' bodies,
possessions, and lockers. Since there is a strong relationship between student
violence and use and sale of drugs, administrators make special efforts to keep
schools drug-free, through both education campaigns and searching.
TEACHER INVOLVEMENT. To dispel fears and help teachers feel supported,
meetings about violence issues are held regularly, possibly as a component of
general staff meetings. Administrators provide accurate information about
violent occurrences and responses to them, involve faculty members in prevention
efforts, and listen to their concerns. Also, teachers' input can be invaluable,
since it is common for them to have information about the threat of violence
(and, also, gang activities) before administrators do, and to have suggestions
for how to deal with it based on personal knowledge of the students.
Training in violence prevention-for ancillary staff such as school bus
drivers, as well as teachers-can both make the school safer and help staff feel
more secure. Programs can include development of the ability to identify
students at risk of anti-social behavior for preventive intervention, to
identify and diffuse potential violence, and to deal safely with violence should
it erupt. Some staff training covers the same issues that comprise training for
students, such as conflict resolution, and it can be effective for staff to
participate along with students.
Since at-risk students respond positively to personal attention, teachers can
help youth resist violent impulses and the lure of drugs and gangs by offering
them extra help with their schoolwork, referrals, informal counseling, or even
just a sympathetic ear.
ANTI-VIOLENCE. Early intervention is
necessary to prevent youth violence. Elementary education training in anger
management, impulse control, appreciation of diversity, and mediation and
conflict resolution skills can help prevent youth from engaging in violence as
they mature. Early discussions about the negative consequences of gang
membership, and providing children with positive ways of getting personal needs
met, can protect them from future gang recruitment efforts. Educating young
children about the use of guns is also valuable, since accidents have happened
as a result of children's naivete about their danger.
Age-appropriate training in self-esteem development and stress management and
reduction, especially for students living in poverty or in difficult family
circumstances, can help transform negative feelings into positive coping skills.
Other types of training, introduced to students at later developmental stages,
covers development of "refusal skills" to help youth resist using substances and
engaging in sexual activity, and how to prevent date violence, with particular
attention to battering during teenage pregnancy.
Some schools have a specially trained safety coordinator or a committee whose
primary function is to coordinate anti-violence programs and to respond to
crisis situations by offering counseling and mediation. Schools may also have
crisis centers, which are staffed places where students who commit or threaten
an act of violence can go to receive on-the-spot counseling and to "cool off."
Other types of programs take a positive approach to violence prevention by
offering incentives for good behavior, such as a recognition and reward system
for good school citizenship. The goal is to bring about a change in the students
and school climate so that normative behavior is constructive.
ANTI-GANG. Even more than violence prevention in general, effective anti-gang
strategies involve all school operations and staff. They require establishment
of a positive school climate, good communications and security, a staff trained
in crisis intervention, and a coordinated effort. They also require that schools
not only acknowledge a gang presence, but that they actively investigate its
extent and accurately determine who the members are, what they do, and where
they congregate. Finally, good strategies require schools to acknowledge that
preventing, and even reducing, gang activity will be a protracted
trial-and-error process during which many different tactics are employed.
A first step is often establishing and widely publicizing the philosophy that
a gang presence (clothing and paraphernalia, as well as behavior) will not be
tolerated. Policies that flow from the philosophy include a dress code and
prohibition on flashing gang signs, shouting gang slogans, and writing gang
graffiti on school or personal property. Discipline measures, meted out
consistently, which escalate with the number or severity of infractions,
demonstrate school seriousness.
Schools make an extra effort to involve potential and active gang members in
academic, extracurricular, and counseling programs. Providing gang members with
effective educational supports, such as tutoring, can reconnect them with the
rewards and value of academic achievement. Staff who takes a personal interest
in individual members can help loosen the hold of the gang. By meeting
informally with members and arranging for positive experiences that are probably
otherwise lacking in their lives, staff can provide students with some of the
affirmation that gangs offer. To do this, staff members may need to change their
attitudes about gang members and take more time with certain students than they
Involving parents by providing them with information about their children's
gang activity and its possible consequences, and counseling to help them deal
with the problem, can enlist them as allies in the effort to rid the school of
gangs. Schools can also provide access to outside agencies that offer
counseling. As a last resort, gang members can be transferred to alternative
schools for more intensive support.
REMEDIES AND DISCIPLINE
School districts are aware that
some students simply cannot function in a regular classroom, and many have
created alternative schools for students who have been suspended or expelled, or
are at risk of suspension. These schools incorporate intensive individual and
group counseling into the educational program. To prevent the alternative
schools from becoming warehouses that fail to turn around disruptive students,
staff takes care to develop individual plans for students with the goal of
returning them to a regular school.
Schools also may provide similar programs as an add-on for students who are
placed in detention or who remain in their regular school. Some effective
intervention programs focus on modifying beliefs and related behavior; examples
include aggression replacement and anti-bullying training. Some districts
include a community service component in their alternative program; a few even
require that students' volunteer assignments allow them to see the results of
violence firsthand, so they may work with injured crime victims.
Concern about increasing youth violence is being
channeled into a variety of innovative, and potentially effective, programs
around the country. Although components vary depending on the particular needs
of the community, the most effective programs:
*Make an accurate assessment of the existence of violence and, especially,
*Use all the resources in the community, including social service and law
enforcement, and not just rely on school officials to deal with the problem.
*Incorporate family services into both community and school programs.
*Intervene early in a child's life.
*Include not only anti-violence strategies but also positive experiences.
*Create and communicate clearly defined behavior codes, and enforce them
strictly and uniformly.
*Prepare to engage in a long-term effort.
In all communities it is likely that sometimes anti-violence work will be
compromised by lack of resources and time, and that even the most dedicated
individuals will feel frustrated. Early evaluations of well-organized programs
suggest that success is possible, though; and statistics demonstrating an
increase in youth violence, however slight, indicate that the effort and the
expenditure are necessary.
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