Like most institutions in a world of change, the age-old practice of
mentoring is being influenced by new forms of work, technology, and learning.
Mentoring is typically defined as a relationship between an experienced
and a less experienced person in which the mentor provides guidance, advice,
support, and feedback to the protege (Haney 1997). Mentoring is a way to
help new employees learn about organizational culture (Bierema 1996), to
facilitate personal and career growth and development, and to expand opportunities
for those traditionally hampered by organizational barriers, such as women
and minorities (Gunn 1995). The benefits of mentoring are not only work
related; it can provide individuals with opportunities to enhance cultural
awareness, aesthetic appreciation, and the potential to lead meaningful
lives (Galbraith and Cohen 1995).
A traditional mentoring model is the apprentice learning from a master.
In the Industrial Age, mentoring focused on career advancement within organizational
hierarchies (Haney 1997). Now the Information Age demands a wide range
of cognitive, interpersonal, and technical skills, and mentoring is changing
to cope with these expanded needs. This Digest looks at new forms of and
perspectives on mentoring and the kinds of learning that result from mentoring
MENTORING AND ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE
Organizational trends such as downsizing, restructuring, teamwork, increased
diversity, and individual responsibility for career development are contributing
to the resurgent interest in mentoring in the 1990s. "Downsizing has heightened
the need to preserve institutional memory and to share the information
and experience that remain in the company" (Jossi 1997, p. 52). Mentors
represent continuity; as mentors, older, experienced workers can continue
contributing to their organizations and professions. The Mentoring Institute
(1997) maintains that, in the past, mentoring typically just "happened"
as experienced people recognized and developed new talent or as beginners
sought the counsel of knowledgeable elders. Now, the institute describes
a "new mentoring paradigm": today's proteges are better educated but still
need a mentor's practical know-how and wisdom ("craft knowledge") that
can be acquired only experientially. Therefore, many organizations are
instituting formal mentoring programs as a cost-effective way to upgrade
skills, enhance recruitment and retention, and increase job satisfaction
Many mentoring programs have been geared specifically to women and minorities
as a way of helping them break into the "Old Boy Network" and through the
"Glass Ceiling." However, the value of opening these opportunities to all
is being recognized. Gunn (1995) suggests that a more democratic approach
to mentoring is emerging, open to more employees at more levels. For example,
a high-level new employee hired because of specific expertise may still
need the coaching in organizational culture that mentors can provide, a
form of partnership that is a "two-way transfer of skills and experience"
(p. 65). This more inclusive mentoring strategy is seen as an alternative
to the career ladders and security that organizations are no longer providing
(ibid.). Another democratic approach is a trend toward group mentoring
in which the mentor is a learning leader of a team or "learning group"
within a learning organization (Kaye and Jacobson 1996). Members of a diverse
learning group can learn from each other (peer mentoring) as well as from
the learning leader.
Loeb (1995) goes further by suggesting that one-on-one mentoring is
becoming less viable as competition increases and people change jobs frequently,
becoming less identified with one organization. He recommends that individuals
manage their own career development with the help of a "board of advisors"--multiple
mentors within and outside of their organizations who can provide a wide
range of expertise and advice about both specific organizational politics
and culture as well as broader trends in a profession or field.
MENTORING AND TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE
Although the Internet offers a vast and often bewildering array of information
resources, there is still no substitute for human relationships. Telementoring
is emerging as a way to pair teachers and learners with subject-matter
experts who can provide advice, guidance, and feedback on learning projects.
Among the intermediaries involved in matching online mentors with proteges
are Mentor Center (http://mentorcenter.bbn.com/), The Electronic Emissary
(http://www.tapr.org/emissary/), and LearnWell eMentors (http://www.learnwell.org/).
Technology is also assisting mentoring in organizations, as corporations
with offices around the nation and the world connect mentors and proteges
via electronic mail or videoconferencing (Jossi 1997). Telementoring is
also proving essential in distance learning. The isolation that often contributes
to distance learners dropping out can be overcome by pairing learners with
faculty telementors. Empire State College (Alliance 1995) has successfully
used this strategy to improve retention and completion for distance learners
and adult students in individualized degree programs. At Iona College (Oswald
1996), faculty mentors use telephone, written, and e-mail interaction to
guide video-based learning for adult students.
The combination of digital technologies and organizational changes is
making individuals more responsible for their own learning and career development.
Freelancing, consulting, and "portfolio work" make it more difficult for
people to connect with traditional sources of mentors in organizations
(Dyson 1997). At the same time, teleworking increases physical distance
from the workplace and decreases the ability to acquire the tacit or craft
knowledge that comes from interaction with experienced workers. For these
reasons, mentoring becomes even more important for individuals attempting
to develop an array of flexible skills and for organizations seeking to
maintain institutional knowledge (Raghuram 1996).
LEARNING THROUGH MENTORING
Mentoring supports much of what is currently known about how individuals
learn, including the socially constructed nature of learning and the importance
of experiential, situated learning experiences (Kerka 1997). According
to constructivist theory, learning is most effective when situated in a
context in which new knowledge and skills will be used and individuals
construct meaning for themselves but within the context of interaction
with others. Experts facilitate learning by modeling problem-solving strategies,
guiding learners in approximating the strategies while learners articulate
their thought processes. Experts coach learners with appropriate scaffolds
or aids, gradually decreasing assistance as learners internalize the process
and construct their own knowledge and understanding (ibid.). These processes
are reflected in the mentor's roles of guide, adviser, coach, motivator,
facilitator, and role model within a contextual setting (Galbraith and
Cohen 1995; Haney 1997; Kaye and Jacobson 1996). Functioning as experts,
mentors provide authentic, experiential learning opportunities as well
as an intense interpersonal relationship through which social learning
GUIDED EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING
Bell (1997) likens the mentor's role in experiential learning to that
of birds guiding their young in leaving the nest; they support without
rescuing, provide scaffolding (e.g., in a problem situation, asking "What
do think you should do next?"), and have the courage to let learners fail.
Learning from experience, "mentees speed past learning basic routines and
get on to the job...they enjoy a fast linkup between what was learned in
the classroom and what is needed in the workplace" (Galbraith and Cohen
1995, p. 60). Exploring how experience is transformed into expertise, Cleminson
and Bradford (1996) identify three types of learning: trial and error,
"sitting by Nellie" (observing an experienced person), and guided learning.
The latter, they suggest, is characteristic of the most effective mentoring.
With trust as the foundation of the relationship, mentors give proteges
a safe place to try out ideas, skills, and roles with minimal risk (Kaye
and Jacobson 1996). Such experiments are more authentic when linked with
real-world activities such as temporary work assignments or short-term
projects. The knowledge acquired is thus constantly reinterpreted and developed
through practice (Cleminson and Bradford 1996).
LEARNING THROUGH RELATIONSHIPS
Although learning is a matter of individual interpretation of experiences,
it takes place within the social context (Kerka 1997). Therefore, the interpersonal
relationship of mentor and mentee is recognized as essential (Galbraith
and Cohen 1995). "The idea of learning as a transaction--an interactive
and evolving process between mentors and their adult learners--is considered
a fundamental component of the adult mentoring relationship" (ibid., p.
17). Mentoring provides two primary functions: career/instrumental and
psychosocial. The instrumental function is the external value of the relationship;
mentees benefit from their mentor's knowledge, contacts, support, and guidance.
The psychosocial function is the internal value of the ongoing interpersonal
dialogue, collaborative critical thinking, planning, reflection, and feedback
(Galbraith and Cohen 1995).
The psychosocial function of mentoring is a form of relational learning,
the value of which is increasingly being recognized in a less hierarchical,
team environment. Women especially have been found to favor relational
learning. For the executive women in Bierema's (1996) study, "relationships
informed them about their company's culture and helped them process both
cognitive and experiential learning experiences" (p. 157). Mentoring is
a personalized and systematic way to be socialized into an organization's
culture; such cultural competence is important in both work and academic
settings. For example, first-generation college students often experience
culture clash in academic environments that can be overcome with a mentor's
guidance (Galbraith and Cohen 1995). However, socialization can also be
constraining if the novice is exposed to a "limited repertoire of practices,
views, and expectations" (Cleminson and Bradford 1996, p. 255).
As organizational diversity increases, the question arises whether mentoring
becomes a vehicle for assimilation and exclusion. The personal relationship
at the heart of mentoring can be problematic when mentor and mentee are
of different genders, races, or ethnic backgrounds. There is disagreement
over the advantages and disadvantages of matching characteristics in mentoring
relationships. Ensher and Murphy (1997) found that perceived and actual
similarity affected the amount of instrumental and psychosocial support
mentors provided as well as protege satisfaction. Other research, however,
showed mixed results for "diversified" mentoring (Russell and Tinsley 1997).
Some argue that race and gender should not play a role in mentor selection
(Jossi 1997), but mentors still need to be sensitive to different cultural
perspectives or mentoring will merely perpetuate homogeneous, exclusionary
values and culture (Galbraith and Cohen 1995).
If developing learning organizations in a learning society is a desirable
social goal, mentoring can perform an important function in helping people
develop their highest potential. If "everyone is capable of being a teacher
(mentor) and a learner (mentee)" (ibid., p. 92), individuals should strive
to develop their capacity to learn from and support the learning of others.
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