ERIC Identifier: ED437767
Publication Date: 1999-12-00
Author: Orkwis, Raymond
Source: ERIC Clearinghouse on
Disabilities and Gifted Education Reston VA.
Curriculum Access and Universal Design for Learning. ERIC/OSEP
WHAT IS CURRICULUM ACCESS?
Under the 1997 IDEA re-authorization, all students, regardless of their
abilities, must be given the opportunity to become involved with and progress in
the general education curriculum. Every student must have access to what is
being taught. Providing access, however, involves much more than supplying every
student with a textbook or a computer. Teachers must ensure that students are
actively engaged in learning; that is, the subject matter is cognitively
challenging them, regardless of their developmental level.
Students with disabilities can be blocked from this interaction because of an
inflexible text that may inadvertently create physical, sensory, affective, or
cognitive barriers. Even though they may have the same tools as everyone else,
they do not truly have equal access to the curriculum. But there are several
strategies educators can employ to give these students access, including using a
curriculum that has been universally designed for accessibility.
WHAT IS UNIVERSAL DESIGN FOR LEARNING?
students' individual needs and to give them the opportunity to progress in
content areas, educators traditionally have adapted or altered the textbook or
tests. Typical accommodations are Braille or recorded texts for visually
impaired students, captioned materials for hearing-impaired students, and
customized supplementary materials or alternative texts that address cognitive
disabilities. In most classrooms, these accommodations are added to the
standardized curriculum much as a wheelchair ramp is added to a building where
stairs formerly provided the only access.
Just as after-the-fact architectural accommodations are often awkward and
expensive, after-the-fact curriculum adaptations can be time consuming to design
and difficult to implement in classrooms of diverse learners. A more efficient
way to provide student access is to consider the range of user abilities at the
design stage of the curriculum and incorporate accommodations at that point.
This "built-in" access for a wide range of users, those with and without
disabilities, is the underlying principle in universal design.
In terms of curriculum, universal design implies a design of instructional
materials and activities that allows learning goals to be attainable by
individuals with wide differences in their abilities to see, hear, speak, move,
read, write, understand English, attend, organize, engage, and remember. Such a
flexible, yet challenging, curriculum gives teachers the ability to provide each
student access to the subject area without having to adapt the curriculum
repeatedly to meet special needs.
The essential features of universal design for learning have been formulated
by the Center for Applied Special Technology (CAST) into three principles:
--The curriculum provides multiple means of representation. Subject matter
can be presented in alternate modes for students who learn best from visual or
auditory information, or for those who need differing levels of complexity.
--The curriculum provides multiple means of expression to allow students to
respond with their preferred means of control. This accommodates the differing
cognitive strategies and motor-system controls of students.
--The curriculum provides multiple means of engagement. Students' interests
in learning are matched with the mode of presentation and their preferred means
of expression. Students are more motivated when they are engaged with what they
HOW IS UNIVERSAL DESIGN FOR LEARNING BEING
Teachers who want to begin implementing universal design must
begin by using curricular materials that are flexible. Although digital
materials are not the only way to deliver a universally designed curriculum,
they allow the greatest flexibility in presentation. They can be easily
customized to accommodate a wide range of student abilities, but the teacher and
the students must know how to use them. The mere presence of good software
programs in the classroom does not guarantee that they will provide needed
The access provided by universal design for instructional materials does not
mean that students are accommodated by lowering the standards, finding "the
least common denominator," or otherwise "dumbing down" the curriculum. In fact,
the curriculum must remain at a sufficient level of difficulty if students are
to progress in it. For example, a software program for beginning readers can
have different settings for the speed at which the information is presented and
highlighted (multiple representations). It can be controlled with vocal
commands, single switch controls, or alternate keyboards (multiple expressions).
It can request different levels of feedback from students, from having them
repeat the sounds of letters and words to creating their own stories using the
vocabulary words they've learned (multiple engagements). These accommodations
allow the necessary flexibility for student access and the necessary challenge
IS THERE SUPPORT FOR A UNIVERSAL DESIGN CURRICULUM?
teachers are already working in environments with varying degrees of
inclusiveness, effectively teaching students with and without disabilities in
the same classroom. Many general and special educators now collaborate on
curriculum and prepare adaptations for special needs in their classes. These
teachers have already taken the first step toward implementing universal design
goals in their classrooms.
As the demographics of classrooms continue to change and there is more need
for adapted materials, curriculum developers, particularly those who produce
instructional software, are considering the advantages of universal design. With
the federal government and states pushing for schools to incorporate more
technology-based teaching tools in the classroom, understanding the foundations
of universal design for curriculum access can help guide teachers into
HOW CAN I FIND OUT MORE ABOUT UNIVERSAL DESIGN FOR
Several groups are working on universal design issues as they
relate to curriculum access:
--CAST is an educational organization that explores how technology can be
used to expand opportunities for all people, including those with disabilities.
Their web site contains much information about universal design for learning and
accessibility, including an elaboration of the three essential curricular
principles of universally designed curricula. CAST, 39 Cross Street, Suite 201,
Peabody, MA 01960; 978-531-8555; firstname.lastname@example.org; http://www.cast.org.
--The ERIC/OSEP Special Project of the ERIC Clearinghouse on Disabilities and
Gifted Education (ERIC EC) has published A Curriculum Every Student Can Use:
Design Principles for Student Access, a topical brief on universal design for
learning. It is available from the Clearinghouse or on the Internet at
ericec.org/osep/udesign.htm. ERIC Clearinghouse on Disabilities and Gifted
Education, 1920 Association Drive, Reston, VA 21091-1589, (800) 328-0272.
--Research Connections is a biannual review of special education research
sponsored by the U.S. Department of Education's Office of Special Education
Programs (OSEP) and published by ERIC EC. The Fall 1999 issue focuses on
Universal Design and access to the general education curriculum. A related
issue, from Fall 1998, describes research in integrating technology in the
curriculum to improve opportunities for students with learning disabilities.
These free publications can be requested from the Clearinghouse or found at its
--The Trace Center is a research, development, and resource center that
focuses on increasing access to computers and information technologies for
people with disabilities. The Center's web site includes a section on "Designing
a More Usable World," which employs universal design features. Trace Research
& Development Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 5901 Research Park
Boulevard, Madison, WI 53719-1252; (608) 262-6966; email@example.com;
--EASI (Equal Access to Software and Information) is a project of the
Teaching, Learning, and Technology Group, an affiliate of the American
Association for Higher Education. EASI provides information and guidance in the
area of access-to-information technologies by individuals with disabilities. In
conjunction with the Rochester Institute of Technology, EASI conducts online
workshops on access issues. Contact EASI c/o TLT Group, PO Box 18929, Rochester,
NY 14618; (716) 244-9065; EASI@TLTGROUP.ORG; http://www.rit.edu/~easi.