Designing Individualized Education Program (IEP)
Transition Plans. ERIC Digest.
by deFur, Sharon
The 1997 amendments to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
(IDEA) emphasized that students with disabilities are to be prepared for
employment and independent living and that specific attention is to be
paid to the secondary education they receive. The law also requires coordinated
and documented planning. Early and meaningful transition planning, which
actively involves students and their families, has a positive influence
on students' post-school success and independence. This digest describes
the process of designing quality IEP transition plans.
TAKING AN EARLY, LONG-RANGE APPROACH
Generally, an IEP addresses services to be provided to the student during
one school year. But when it comes to transition requirements, the IEP
team must think and plan several years ahead. The highest incidence of
dropping out and of disciplinary actions such as suspension or expulsion
occurs during the first two years of high school. To combat this pattern,
IDEA requires that the IEP team carefully consider post-school goals when
the student is about to enter high school at age 14. Beginning at age 16
(or younger, if appropriate) a statement of transition services needed
by the student must be included in the IEP.
High school experiences, both academic and social, greatly influence
future options for all students. For adolescents with disabilities, these
experiences are pivotal. Decisions about any transition service needs or
a student's course of study should be grounded in the answers to the following
* What are his dreams? His vision for life as a young adult?
* What are her strengths? How will she use them to build success during
* Will he seek a regular high school diploma requiring a prescribed
course of study with possible accompanying proficiency tests? @* Will she
work toward a vocational completion certificate?
* Does she have a career interest now? If not, when and how can the
team help her discover her interests and preferences?
* Does this team believe that he will remain in public school through
the maximum age of eligibility? If so, what age-appropriate experiences
may be available after 18?
* What skills need to be developed or improved to help her make progress
toward her goals?
* Are there any at-risk behaviors that might interfere with his success
during high school?
* In what school and community activities will she participate?
* What does the team believe his high school course of study will look
* What transition services, supports and accommodations does she need
for success in high school?
Discussing and answering these questions will meet the intent of the
IDEA regulations, assist in preventing school failure, and promote success
in high school for students.
Although IDEA does not require formal transition planning earlier than
age 14, approaching the elementary IEP process with an eye to the future
builds a foundation for secondary school transition planning. All IEP decisions
should be made in the context of how that decision may affect the child's
future school or post-school experiences. For example, participation in
the general curriculum or the state testing program as an elementary student
may increase the likelihood of continued involvement in those aspects of
schooling needed to earn a high school diploma. Early career education
will increase self-awareness and self-determination.
DEVELOPING A COMPREHENSIVE PLAN
Section 300.29 of the IDEA regulations defines transition service as
a coordinated set of activities for a student with a disability that:
* Is designed within an outcome-oriented process, that promotes movement
from school to post-school activities, including post-secondary education,
vocational training, integrated employment (including supported employment),
continuing and adult education, adult services, independent living, or
* Is based on the individual student's needs, taking into account the
student's preferences and interests
* Includes instruction; related services; community experiences; the
development of employment and other post-school adult living objectives;
and, if appropriate, acquisition of daily living skills and functional
Realistic transition activities must be outlined in the IEP. Developing
skills for an unneeded labor market does not promote employment, and obtaining
a job without transportation options compromises the possibility of success.
Roles and responsibilities should be written into the plan. Examples of
transition activities include
* Assessing student needs, interests, or preferences for future education,
employment, and adult living and setting future goals in these areas
* Identifying, exploring, and trying out transition placements that
match the student's assessment and vision and providing community experiences
related to future goals
* Instructing the student in the academic, vocational, and adult living
skills needed to achieve transition goals, including self-determination
* Identifying and providing the accommodations, supports, or related
services the student needs
* Coordinating with adult services organizations and helping families
identify resources and natural supports
* Providing or planning follow-up or follow-along support once the student
develops independence in a transition activity or graduates
PARTICIPANTS IN DEVELOPING THE TRANSITION PLAN IDEA
Requires that the following attend the IEP meeting:
* Parent (and if desired, the family)
* The student's special education teacher or related services provider
* The student's regular education teacher
* A local educational agency representative
* Other agency personnel who have knowledge or expertise required to
best serve the student's needs
The law makes it clear that the student is the most important member
of the team. In fact, according to the IDEA regulations at 300.344, the
student must be invited to participate in the IEP meeting whenever the
purpose of the meeting is related to transition (that is, any IEP meeting
after reaching age 14). If the student does not attend the meeting, then
IDEA regulations expect schools to take other steps to ensure the student's
preferences and interests are considered.
Before the IEP meeting, students should be coached and taught the skills
they will need participate in or lead their IEP transition meetings. With
support and direct instruction, students can become aware of their strengths
and needs, learn to advocate for themselves, and learn to set and evaluate
When the purpose of the IEP includes developing a transition plan, families
must be advised of this purpose. Prior to the meeting, many schools send
families materials to help them think about their child's future. At the
meeting, the staff asks family members to describe their vision for their
child's future. The IEP team uses the family's knowledge of the student
in planning and identifies resources the family can use during the transition
process. Effective transition planning adopts an approach that is sensitive
to the culture and context of the family, thus empowering the family for
its role in guiding their adult child with a disability.
Transition planning should help students and families connect with the
adult service system. Adult service organizations that may provide or pay
for transition services must be invited to participate in the development
of the IEP transition plan. If they are unable to attend, then the school
must find alternative ways of involving them in planning any transition
services that they might pay for or provide. Each transition activity should
include someone who consents to monitor the provision of that service as
outlined in the IEP.
Guidance counselors, related service providers, vocational educators,
and administrators all have a potential place and voice in designing transition
plans for students. These participants may vary depending on the goals
and needs of the student.
TRANSFERRING RIGHTS AT THE AGE OF MAJORITY
IDEA applies to students until they leave the school system or until
age 22. Once they have reached the age of majority in their state all IDEA
rights will transfer from their parents or guardian to them. At least one
year before the birthday that signifies adulthood, the IEP team must make
certain that families and students understand that this transfer will occur.
Establishing guardianship is one alternative to transferring rights; another
alternative is determining, using state policies, that the adult child
is unable to make informed decisions. These alternatives are appropriate
for only a few students.
Discussions that help families consider the adult independence alternatives
for their child benefit transition planning. They also help educate students
and families in how students can assume the role of primary decision maker
in their futures. The transfer of rights illustrates the importance of
developing student self-determination.
PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER
A transition plan is an ongoing process. Minimally, the IEP team reviews
the transition plan as part of the annual review. The written plan provides
the framework, but like any good plan the process remains open to new information.
All team members need to be aware of the goals and planned activities so
that everyone can reinforce progress toward the student's goals. Implementing
the transition plan and the coordinated set of activities requires all
IEP team members to make a commitment to promoting adult success for youths
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