ERIC Identifier: ED459634 Publication Date: 2001-12-00
Author: Lems, Kristen Source: National Clearinghouse for
ESL Literacy Education Washington DC.
Using Music in the Adult ESL Classroom. ERIC Digest.
Music can be used in the adult English as a second language (ESL) classroom
to create a learning environment; to build listening comprehension, speaking,
reading, and writing skills; to increase vocabulary; and to expand cultural
knowledge. This digest looks briefly at research and offers strategies for using
music in the adult ESL classroom.
Neurologists have found that musical and language
processing occur in the same area of the brain, and there appear to be parallels
in how musical and linguistic syntax are processed (Maess & Koelsch, 2001).
In one study, college students demonstrated improved short-term spatial
reasoning ability after listening to Mozart. This was dubbed the "Mozart effect"
in the popular press (Rauscher, Shaw, & Ky, 1993).
Adult learners in South Africa, exposed to instrumental music during an
intensive English course, showed benefits in language learning (Puhl, 1989).
Many educators report success using instrumental music as a warm up and
relaxation tool, as a background for other activities, and as the inspiration
for writing activities (Eken, 1996).
USING SONGS IN INSTRUCTION
Most classroom music activities
focus on lyrics. Educator Tim Murphey conducted an analysis of the lyrics of a
large corpus of pop songs and found that they have several features that help
second- language learners: They contain common, short words and many personal
pronouns (94% of the songs had a first person, I, referent and are written at
about a fifth-grade level); the language is conversational (imperatives and
questions made up 25% of the sentences in the corpus); time and place are
usually imprecise (except for some folk ballads); the lyrics are often sung at a
slower rate than words are spoken with more pauses between utterances; and there
is repetition of vocabulary and structures. These factors allow learners to
understand and relate to the songs (Murphey, 1992). A further benefit of pop
song lyrics is that their meanings are fluid, and, like poetry, allow for many
different interpretations (Moi, 1994). Following are strategies to use with
LISTENING AND ORAL ACTIVITIES
Songs contextually introduce
the features of supra-segmentals (how rhythm, stress, and intonation affect the
pronunciation of English in context). Through songs, students discover the
natural stretching and compacting of the stream of English speech. For example,
the reduction of the auxiliary have to the sound /uv/ can be heard in the song
by Toni Braxton "You've Been Wrong for So Long" (2000). Similarly, the change of
word final t + word initial y to /ch/ can be heard in a line from the Tracy
Chapman Song "All that You Have Is Your Soul" (1989), where the singer says,
"Don't you eat of a bitter fruit." Moriya (1988) points out the value of using
songs for pronunciation practice with Asian learners because of the many
phonemic differences between Asian languages and English. However, students from
any language background can benefit from a choral or individual reading of the
lyrics of the songs mentioned above, practicing the natural reductions that
occur in spoken English.
Students may summarize orally the action or theme of a song or give oral
presentations about a song or musician, playing musical selections for the
class. To involve the whole class, students can fill out response sheets about
each presentation, answering questions about the featured topic, something new
they learned, and something they enjoyed.
READING AND WRITING ACTIVITIES
Students can fill in the
blanks before, during, or after listening to a song, and then check to see
whether their word choices made sense semantically, even if they did not pick
the exact word used. This helps build the important skill of forming hypotheses
based on context (predicting). This activity, called cloze, is usually created
by deleting words at predetermined intervals, e.g., every 5th or 7th word.
However, words can be deleted instead to practice a target grammar point, such
as past tense verbs, prepositions, or compound nouns, or to identify key words
(Griffee, 1990). For example, in the popular Enya song "Only Time" (2001), the
auxiliary "can" could be omitted. ("Who can say where the road goes, where the
day flows, only time. And who can say if your love grows, as your heart chose,
One popular activity is to cut the lyrics into lines and have students put
them in the correct order as they listen to the song. This can be done
individually or in small groups. It may be necessary to play the song several
times. After the lines of the song have been put in order, the song can be
played once more as students read or sing along. Alternatively, the class can be
divided into teams with identical sets of strips and compete to see which group
can put the strips in the correct order first.
For short songs, students can work in small groups to write the words of a
song. The process of putting the lyrics together as a group involves making
decisions about word order, verb tense, and parts of speech. It also builds the
teamwork skills so important to the workplace and community. When the lyric
sheet is handed out, the groups can compare what they heard and wrote with the
Adult students enjoy writing responses to songs, either in class or at home.
Possible responses include topics comparing music in the students' homeland with
music in the United States. This assignment draws upon the knowledge and
experiences that adult ESL learners bring to language learning and provides a
known context for comparing and contrasting, often a difficult skill for
Many songs tell a story, and these stories can be rewritten or retold to
practice narrative or summarizing skills or direct and reported speech. Students
can also complete a writing prompt or answer a question from the point of view
of the narrator or other characters in a song. For example, the Nancy Wilson
song, "Guess Who I Saw Today" (1960) is sung by a wife catching her husband
having a romantic lunch with another woman. The prompt could require the
students to respond to the accusations in writing, saying what the husband might
VOCABULARY BUILDING ACTIVITIES
Pop songs are written to be
easily understood and enjoyed. As discussed above, they tend to use high
frequency lyrics that have emotional content. This makes them strong candidates
for word study or for reinforcing words already learned through written means.
If a series of songs is to be used, students can be paired and given a song to
teach the class.
However, the songs may also have idioms in them that might be difficult to
explain, depending on the level of the students. For example, Cat Stevens'
rendition of "Morning Has Broken" (1975) may appear initially to be a solid
intermediate-level song that practices the present perfect tense. On closer
examination, the expression "morning has broken" can be confusing to English
language learners and may need to be discussed prior to listening to the song.
CULTURAL KNOWLEDGE ACTIVITIES
Songs can be used in
discussions of culture. They are a rich mine of information about human
relations, ethics, customs, history, humor, and regional and cultural
differences. A song can be part of a unit that also contains poems, video
footage, or still photographs. Recordings of freedom songs from the civil rights
movement can be a powerful accompaniment to watching Martin Luther King Jr.'s "I
Have a Dream" speech on video, for example.
Songs should be carefully selected for the
adult ESL classroom. Lems (1996) and Poppleton (2001), make the following
Song lyrics should be clear and loud, not submerged in the instrumental music.
The vocabulary load for the song should be appropriate to the proficiency level.
For example, Led Zepplin's "Stairway to Heaven" (1971)-with its vivid imagery
and possibilities for multiple interpretations-might be successful with an
advanced-level class. With other learners, however, its fast pace, obscure
references, and lack of repetition could prove troublesome, as could the word
inversion in lines such as, "There walks a lady we all know."
Songs should be pre-screened for potentially problematic content, such as
explicit language, references to violent acts or sex, or inappropriate religious
Griffee (1990) recommends using short, slow songs for beginning-level
students and discusses activities such as creating song word puzzles, drawing a
song, or showing related pictures. With higher levels, he suggests using songs
that tell stories, moving toward short, fast songs, and finally, longer, fast
songs that have fewer high frequency vocabulary items.
Finding copies of song lyrics is not difficult. Many are available on the
Internet, and many recordings contain lyric sheets. Beatles' songs such as
"Yesterday" (1965) and "In My Life" (1966) have clear, direct lyrics and a
timeless quality that make them appropriate with adult English language
learners. Because teachers will show care and effort when presenting songs they
are especially fond of, their favorites are also good. Finally, students are
often strongly motivated to learn the lyrics of a new pop song or an old
favorite they have heard and never understood, so their choices for classroom
music should not be overlooked.
Eken, D. K. (1996). Ideas for using songs in the
English language classroom. "English Teaching Forum, 34"(1), 46-47.
Griffee, D. T. (1990). Hey baby! Teaching short and slow songs in the ESL
classroom. "TESL Reporter, 23"(4), 3-8.
Lems, K. (1996). "For a song: Music across the ESL curriculum". Paper
presented at the annual convention of Teachers of English to Speakers of Other
Languages, Chicago. (ED No. 396 524)
Maess, B., & Koelsch, S. (2001). Musical syntax is processed in Broca's
area: An MEG study. "Nature Neuroscience 4", 540-545.
Moi, C. M. (1994). Rock poetry: The literature our students listen to.
"Journal of the Imagination in Language Learning, 2", 56-59.
Moriya, Y. (1988). "English speech rhythm and its teaching to non-native
speakers". Paper presented at the annual convention of Teachers of English to
Speakers of Other Languages. Chicago. (ED No. 303 033)
Murphey, T.(1992).The discourse of pop songs. "TESOL Quarterly, 26"(4),
Poppleton, C. (2001). Music to our ears. "American Language Review, 5"(1),
Puhl, C. A. (1989). "Up from under: English training on the mines". (Report
on 1988 research project conducted at Gold Field Training Services).
Stellenbosch, South Africa: University of Stellenbosch. (ED No. 335 864)
Rauscher, F. H., Shaw, G., & Ky, K. (1993). Mozart and spatial reasoning.
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