ERIC Identifier: ED482768 Publication Date: 2003-12-00
Author: Hogan, Eileen K.
Source: ERIC Clearinghouse on Counseling and Student Services
Anger Management 3: Structured Programs and Interventions.
Numerous structured programs exist for helping clients learn to manage
more effectively. These programs vary in intended audience, theoretical
method, and actual skills and techniques used. A review of several
structured programs follows. It is important to remember that prior to
selecting an intervention, one must assess the expression, function, source,
and resulting problems of a client's anger (see Anger Management 1: An
Overview for Counselors). In addition, one must consider the client's cultural
needs, the ability of the client to transfer new skills to their daily
environments, and the client's readiness and skill level for dealing with
the problem in order to select interventions that will be effective (see
Management 2: Counseling Strategies and Skills).
"25 Ways to Help Children Control Their Anger"
"25 Ways to Help Children Control Their Anger," developed by Lawrence
E. Shapiro of Childswork/Childsplay, is geared toward children and is designed
to be used with
individuals. It is based on cognitive behavioral theory and focuses
recognition of feelings and emotions, and awareness of behavioral triggers
"The Anger Control Kit"
"The Anger Control Kit," developed by Lawrence E. Shapiro of Childswork/Childsplay,
is geared toward children. It covers six modalities: affective, behavioral,
cognitive, developmental, educational, and social. It is composed of 38
techniques and focuses on teaching self-regulation, expression of feelings,
stress management, and peer mediation skills (Jahnke, 1998).
"How I Learned to Control My Temper"
"How I Learned to Control My Temper," developed by Debbie Pincus of
Childswork/Childsplay, is geared toward children and is designed to
be used with
individuals. It is based on cognitive behavioral theory and utilizes
worksheets to help
children recognize feelings and emotions, control their temper, be
develop empathy (Jahnke, 1998).
"Aggression Replacement Training (ART)"
"Aggression Replacement Training (ART)," developed by A.P. Goldstein
and B. Glick
(1987), geared toward adolescents, is unique in its design because
it has a behavioral
component (structured learning), an affective component (anger control
training), and a
cognitive component (moral reasoning). The Anger Control Training (ACT)
component is based on the earlier work of Novaco (cognitive preparation,
skill acquisition, application training) and Feindler (triggers, cues,
reminders, reducers, self-evaluation).
The objectives are to teach adolescents to understand what causes them
to feel angry
and act aggressively and then to teach techniques they can use to reduce
and aggression. Often adolescents feel they do not have a choice in
many situations: they feel their only choice is aggression. The goal of training is
to give them skills necessary to make a choice.
The general format of the Anger Control Training involves modeling by
playing by trainees, and feedback. The ABC model provides the foundation
of the anger control training. A is the trigger (what triggered the problem),
B is the behavioral
response (what one did in response to A), and C is the consequences
(to oneself and to the other person). Since it is important to know one
is angry before one uses self-control to reduce anger or to impact one's
reaction, adolescents also learn about triggers (both external and internal),
cues (physical signs that let one know he/she is angry) and anger reducers
(e.g., deep breathing, backward counting, pleasant imagery).
The program teaches adolescents to choose their response in a conflict
situation and to
think ahead about short- and long-term consequences, internal and external
consequences, and social consequences of their potential actions. The
use of self-evaluation in which an adolescent judges for himself how
well he has
handled a conflict, self-rewards himself based on handling a situation
well, and coaches
himself based on how he could have handled it better.
The program also addresses the concept of an Angry Behavior Cycle in
participants are encouraged to consider what they might be doing to
make others angry versus just dealing with what others do to make them
angry. Finally, since the Anger Control Training (ACT) teaches what not
to do (be aggressive) and how not to do it (anger control technique), ART
includes a component of learning what to do in place of being aggressive.
This behavioral component of learning and using new behaviors is incorporated
through structured learning skills.
Taylor (as cited in Besley, 1999) developed a cognitive anger management
for adolescents that focuses on the boundaries of angry situations,
that could develop from certain choices, and appropriate positive responses.
positive response model is known as ACE and it provides three responses
for any given situation. A is for adapt: when one cannot change the circumstances,
one can choose to accept the situation and change one's behavior. C is
for confront in a productive and calm manner. E is for escape: for varied
reasons, there are times when one cannot adapt nor confront the situation,
so one must retreat physically or emotionally. It is important to learn
how to identify an angry situation as needing an A or C or E response and
then consider consequences that might occur with each response. Finally,
it is important to focus on one's own responses to the problem versus on
the intent ofothers.
"The Anger Coping Program"
"The Anger Coping Program," developed by Jonh E. Lochman, Susanne Dunn
Bonnie Klimes-Dougan is geared toward aggressive adolescents and is
designed to be
utilized in groups. It is based on Dodge's model of perceiving and
deciding how to react to problematic social situations. It is composed
of 18 sessions with a focus on
physiological awareness, perspective taking, social problem solving,
and self-instruction to inhibit impulsive responding (Jahnke, 1998).
"Anger Control Training for Adolescents in Residential Treatment"
"Anger Control Training for Adolescents in Residential Treatment," developed
by R.F. Dangel, J.P. Descher, and R.R. Rasp, is geared toward adolescent
groups. It is based on cognitive behavioral theory and is composed of 6
sessions with a focus on thought stopping and relaxation (Jahnke, 1998).
"Anger Control Training for Children and Teens"
"Anger Control Training for Children and Teens," developed by Dr. John
F. Taylor, is
geared toward both children and adolescents; it is designed to be used
individually or in groups. It is based on cognitive theory and focuses
on defining, expressing, and
managing anger. It is available from Mar*co Products, Inc. (Jahnke,
HIGH SCHOOL PROGRAMS
"Anger Management for Youth: Stemming Aggression and Violence"
"Anger Management for Youth: Stemming Aggression and Violence," developed
by Dr. Leona Eggert, is geared toward high school students and is designed
to be utilized in groups. It is based on cognitive behavioral theory and
focuses on linking thoughts,
feelings, and behavior; discovering consequences of angry outbursts;
stopping (Jahnke, 1998).
The "ThinkFirst Curriculum," developed by Dr. James Larson and Dr. Judith
McBride of the University of Wisconsin-Whitewater, is geared toward
aggressive adolescent and high school students; it is designed to be utilized
in groups. It is based on cognitive
behavioral theory and focuses on the ABC model, physiological cues,
direct and indirect provocations, assertion techniques, problem solving,
and self-evaluation (Jahnke, 1998).
ADULT AND ADOLESCENT PROGRAMS
The "Rethink" curriculum, developed by R.J. Fetsch and C.J. Schultz
in conjunction with Colorado State University Cooperative Extension, Family
and Consumer Sciences (Fetsch & Schultz, & Wahler, 1999), is designed
for parents and teens and is unique in that it incorporates information
about normal childhood development issues and about normal parenting issues.
The objectives are to increase participants' knowledge about parenting,
child development, and anger management; assist participants in improving
attitudes about parenting and anger management; assist participants in
making positive behavioral changes; increase participants' anger control
levels; decrease participants' unrealistic expectations of their children;
and decrease participants' family conflict, anger, and violence. The program
is built around the following concepts:
*R = RECOGNIZE anger in yourself and others
*E = EMPATHIZE with the other person
*T = THINK about the situation differently
*H = HEAR what is being said
*I = INTEGRATE respect and love when expressing anger
*N = NOTICE your body's reactions to anger
*K = KEEP your attention on the present problem
"The Anger Workbook"
"The Anger Workbook," developed by Dr. Less Carter and Dr. Frank Minirth,
is geared toward high school and adult individuals but it can be incorporated
into a group format. It is based on cognitive theory and is composed of
13 steps that focus on self-reflection, understanding how emotions feed
anger, and identifying learned patterns of relating, thinking and behaving
that influence anger. It is available from Thomas Nelson Publishers (ISBN
# 0-0-8407-4574-5) (Jahnke, 1998).
"Anger Management Program"
The "Anger Management Program," developed by Linda Panaccione, LISW,
toward adolescents and adults and can be utilized in individual work
or in group work. It is based on cognitive behavioral theory and is composed
on 10 steps with a focus on
recognizing triggers and determining replacement behavior (Jahnke,
This is a brief sample of the wide variety of anger management interventions
to counselors and other mental health practitioners. Many other interventions
found by reviewing professional literature and searching the Internet.
But not allinterventions are will work for all clients so remember to find one
that will effectively
meet a clients' needs and abilities.
Besley, K. R. (1999). Anger management: Immediate intervention by counselor
Professional School Counseling, 3(2), pp. 81-90.
Fetsch, R. J., Schultz, C. J., Wahler, J. J. (1999). A preliminary evaluation
Colorado Rethink parenting and anger management program. Child Abuse
and Neglect, 23(4), pp. 353-360.
Goldstein, A. P. & Glick, B. (1987). Aggression replacement training:
A comprehensive intervention for aggressive youth. Champaign, IL: Research
Jahnke, K. (1998, April). Anger management programs for children and
teens: A review of eleven anger management programs. Paper presented at
the Annual Meeting of the National Association of School Psychologists,
Taylor, J. F. (1991). Anger control training for children and teens.