ERIC Digests on Libraries
Libraries and Democracy - This document is from 1996 and is written
by Laura A. Pinhey. First paragraph: "Libraries in the United States
of America have long cultivated democratic environments. The foundation
of our public library system is built on the assumption that access to
information should be free and open to all. Indeed, libraries take a democratic
stance toward not only the persons they serve, but also toward the very
materials they provide: to offer materials representing all points of view
on a given topic, freedom of expression, and freedom of access are all
principles of library philosophy. It follows that libraries, microcosms
of democracy, are integral to a truly democratic society."
in Today's Digital Age: The Copyright Controversy - This is from 2001
and it is written by Carrie Russell. First paragraph: "Libraries
are public institutions committed to equitable access and the free flow
of information to meet the needs of the public. For libraries, copyright
law - through its incentive model, a rich and robust public domain, fair
use, and library and user exemptions-aids in ensuring that information
is both created and made accessible. While digital technologies and an
ever- expanding communication network infrastructure have enhanced creation
and wide distribution of information to the public, these same technologies
can be used to control or restrict public access to information."
Public Libraries Can Serve Big - This is from 2001 and is written by
Parry Norm. First paragraph: "Small public libraries can deliver
service like big libraries, without sacrificing hometown warmth and charm.
By borrowing strategies used by successful small businesses in the private
sector, defining goals and exploiting ubiquitous low cost technologies,
small public libraries can serve customer wants as well as much larger
institutions. Responding to just three strategic questions, any small library
can improve customer service, make better use of available resources and
open up new service opportunities, without a bigger building, budget or
book collection: What business are you in? What do your customers
want? How do you get it for them?"
and Issue in Digital Reference Services - This is from 2001 and is
written by Abby Kasowitz. First Paragraph: "As more people rely on
the Internet for information and less people approach the reference desks
at their local libraries for assistance (Tenopir, 2001; Coffman and McGlamery,
2000), there is an increased need for formal methods of remote communication
between information seekers and information professionals. Many libraries
and organizations have responded to this need by providing reference service
via the Internet, or digital reference service, to their users. Results
of one study conducted in 1999 found that 45% of academic libraries (Janes,
Carter, and Memmott, 1999) and 13% of public libraries (Janes, 2001) offered
digital reference services through e-mail and the Web. A later study found
that 99% of 70 academic libraries offer e-mail reference and 29% offer
real-time reference service (Tenopir, 2001)."
Quality Management in Libraries - This is from 1996 and is written
by Denise Masters. First paragraph: "In the 1950s, the Japanese asked
W. Edwards Deming, an American statistician and management theorist, to
help them improve their war torn economy. By implementing Deming's principles
of total quality management (TQM), Japan experienced dramatic economic
growth. In the 1980s, when the United States began to see a reduction in
its own world market share in relation to Japan, American business rediscovered
Deming. Quality management experts, Joseph Juran and Philip Crosby, also
contributed to the development of TQM theories, models, and tools. TQM
is now practiced in business as well as in government, the military, education,
and in non-profit organizations including libraries (Jurow & Barnard,
Funding - This is from 2001 and is written by Tracey Bremer.
Opening sentences: "Library funds are accumulated from a mixture of local,
state, federal, and other sources. According to the National Center for
Education Statistics (1997), 77.6% of public library income is acquired
from local funds, 12.1% from state funds, and 0.9% from federal funds.
The remaining funds (over 9%) come from other sources, including user fees,
special events, and private fundraising efforts involving foundations,
corporations, individual philanthropists, and "Friends of the Library"
groups. A closer look at each source will target current issues and anticipated
trends in library funding. Local Taxes: Public libraries today acquire
the bulk of their funding from local property taxes. As a result, the local
economy plays a major role in their budgetary success or failure. Library
budgets began suffering major setbacks during the 1970s, but rebounded
during the 1980s and early 1990s. Currently, however, communities often
fail to pass local tax levies (Burlingame, 1995)."
Library Services for Homeschooling - This is from 1996 and is written
by Denise Masters. Key paragraph: "According to a survey of Ohio
home school parents, 99% of them use the public library as an additional
resource and 73% of them use the public library once a week or several
times per week. Books, magazines, the librarian's help, video and audio
tapes, reference books, and programs for children are the most widely used
services (Schwartz, 1991). In 1993-94, Florida had 14,208 home schoolers,
one of the largest numbers in the nation. The School of Library and Information
Science at the University of South Florida perceived "the need to pool
the ideas, talents and experiences of children's librarians" and later
compiled their professional observations into a resource for other librarians
who "are currently grappling with the challenge of how to serve the increasing
number of their homeschooling patrons" (Geist et al., 1994)."
of World Wide Web Sites: An Annotated Bibliography - This is from 1998
and is written by Kathleen Schrock. First paragraph: "Knowing what
type of information is appropriate for particular purposes, knowing how
to find such information easily, and evaluating information, may be called
information literacy, digital literacy, media literacy, or techno-literacy.
Paul Gilster best defines the concept in his book, Digital Literacy: Digital
literacy is the ability to understand and use information in multiple formats
from a wide range of sources when it is presented via computers... (Not)
only must you acquire the skill of finding things, you must also acquire
the ability to use those things in your life. Acquiring digital literacy
for Internet use involves mastering a set of core competencies. The most
essential of these is the ability to make informed judgments about what
you find on-line. (Gilster, 1997)."
and Maintaining Digital Reference Services - This is from 1999 and
is written by Joann Wasik. First paragraph: "Easily accessible digital
information has rapidly become one of the hallmarks of the Internet. Online
resources have surged in popularity as more individuals and organizations
have connected to the global network. Thousands of organizations have turned
to Internet-based information delivery as an effective and cost-efficient
alternative to traditional communication methods, and many have expanded
their services further by interacting with their users and responding to
inquiries via the Internet."
Using Critical Thinking to Conduct Effective Searches of Online Resources
- This is from 2000 and is written by Sarah Brem. First paragraph:
"More than 80 percent of academic, public and school libraries offer some
form of Internet access (American Library Association, 2000); thousands
of full-text electronic journals and serials are available online. However,
most searches of these materials are cursory and ineffective(Hertzberg
& Rudner, 1999). This Digest complements guidelines addressing the
mechanics of online searching by considering how treating information searches
as exercises in critical thinking can improve our use of online resources.
It addresses the use and application of metacognition, hypothesis testing,
Other ERIC Digests on libraries, librarians,
and library science:
Impact of School Library Media Centers on Academic Achievement.
Please note that this site is privately owned
and is in no way related to any Federal agency or ERIC unit. Further,
this site is using a privately owned and located server. This is NOT a
government sponsored or government sanctioned site. ERIC is a Service Mark
of the U.S. Government. This site exists to provide the text of the public
domain ERIC Documents previously produced by ERIC. No new content
will ever appear here that would in any way challenge the ERIC Service
Mark of the U.S. Government.
of the Power: Recent Research on the Impact of School Library Media Programs
on the Academic Achievement of U.S. Public School Students.
Libraries and Cultural Diversity.
Your Library's Web-Based Services.
Should Principals Support School Libraries?
and Librarians: Collaborative Relationships.
Role of the School Library Media Specialist in the 21st Century.
and Managing Electronic Journals.
Literacy Programs for English Language Learners.
a Diverse Workforce in the Library and Information Science Professions.
Collection Development in an Electronic Age.
Support Staff in an Age of Change: Utilization, Role Definition and Status.
& Issues in Library & Information Science 1990.
Linguistically and Culturally Diverse Students: Strategies for the School
Resources for Library Media Specialists and Children's Librarians.
and Teaching Information Technology--Computer Skills in Context.
and the Internet.
National Science Foundation's Massive Digital Library for Education: Opportunities
and Challenges for Teachers and Librarians.
for the National Education Goals.
Skills for Information Problem-Solving: Learning and Teaching Technology
Literacy Instruction in Higher Education: Trends and Issues.
Emerging Role of Tribal College Libraries in Indian Education.
Proliferation in Public Libraries.
School Librarian's Role in the Electronic Age.
Language in an Elementary School Library Media Center.
for Library Services.