ERIC Identifier: ED272923
Publication Date: 1986-00-00
Author: Koenke, Karl
Source: ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading
and Communication Skills Urbana IL.
Handwriting Instruction: What Do We Know? ERIC Digest.
There is increased emphasis on children's writing today, but the
emphasis is on writing stories and essays that demonstrate that children are
learning to think. However, before children can write anything, they must learn
printing or cursive handwriting. Despite the influence of new technologies, the
computer and the word processor have not replaced the need to learn how to print
In the search for effective handwriting instructional practices, researchers
have examined the following questions: How are printing and cursive handwriting
usually taught? Should printing be taught first and then discontinued? What
should be done with the children who are poor printers? Are special paper and
pencils necessary? and Is there a single "best" method for teaching handwriting?
HOW IS HANDWRITING TAUGHT TODAY?
Surveys indicate that it is generally in kindergarten or first grade where
children are first taught to print. Cursive handwriting is usually introduced in
late second or third grade. Instruction typically takes place as a group
activity rather than as individualized, diagnostic-prescriptive instruction,
even though some research supports the latter approach. Group lessons take place
daily in grades one to four, but after that they are less frequent. The
lessons--chiefly practice sessions--usually last from 15 to 20 minutes each.
Materials and methods for teaching printing and cursive handwriting abound.
The current volume of EL-HI TEXTBOOKS AND SERIALS IN PRINT contains 63 entries
under the heading "Handwriting." In addition, handwriting and printing have been
successfully taught through educational television, computers, and animated flip
books. Other successful experimental methods have included eye-hand coordination
training, perceptual and motor tasks, and verbalization of handwriting rules
(Askov and Peck, 1982).
SHOULD CHILDREN BE TAUGHT PRINTING FIRST, THEN CURSIVE HANDWRITING?
One primary justification for teaching children to print is that the printed
letters look more like the typeset letters found in books. This rationale was
taken on faith when the schools taught only traditional printing, called
manuscript, which does not slant the letters as cursive handwriting does. Some
schools now teach newer styles of printing, italic and D'Nealian for example,
which slant the letters. Research evidence, however, indicates that printing
styles do not make a difference--they are all equally allied to the typeset
letters in books. Research also indicates that cursive handwriting is not as
closely allied to typeset letters as are the various styles of printing (Duvall,
In addition, some evidence supports the idea that the teaching of printing
should be retained in the lower grades because it is more easily learned, is
more legible, and is at least as fast to produce as cursive handwriting. Also,
Askov and Peck (1982) cite studies which show that learning to print creates
ease and allows the student to produce better writing.
Since printing can be produced as speedily as cursive handwriting while being
as legible, and since it is obvious that the adult world generally accepts
printing, it seems that tradition rather that research calls for the transition
from some form of printing to cursive handwriting.
SHOULD POOR PRINTERS BE TAUGHT CURSIVE HANDWRITING AT THE SAME TIME AS GOOD
While quality of instruction is of greater importance than the time of
transition from printing to cursive writing, some research supports the idea
that second and third graders make a smoother transition than do older children.
In addition, there is little evidence to support the thesis that poor printers
will necessarily become poor writers. In fact, they probably will not.
The confounding problem is the tendency to confuse neatness of handwriting
and printing with legibility. This is due in part to the fact that teachers do
not commonly use handwriting evaluation scales because they are cumbersome.
Teachers prefer, instead, to judge the quality of manuscript and handwriting
subjectively. Legibility is marked by appropriate letter formation, size, slant,
spacing, and staying on the line. A child's writing may be sloppy or messy, but
still legible. Holding a child back because he or she writes messily but legibly
may not be productive, since more practice with manuscript does not necessarily
make a child's handwriting more legible. Possibly, teachers should move all the
children to cursive handwriting at the same time, because the delayed children
could lose self-esteem and motivation while not receiving adequate handwriting
instruction (Armitage and Ratzlaff, 1985).
SHOULD CHILDREN USE WIDE-LINED PAPER AND BEGINNER'S PENCILS?
It seems reasonable to use wide-lined paper when children are being
introduced to both printing and cursive handwriting. Several studies have shown
that children's beginning performance improves when special paper is used.
Second graders who are still printing do not need the wide-lined paper, but
second and third graders who are being introduced to cursive handwriting perform
better when they use special paper (Trap-Porter and others, 1983).
Special pencils, however, do not appear necessary. Research indicates not
only that young children prefer adult pencils, but also that they do not write
better when using a beginner's pencil. Furthermore, by the time children reach
the third grade, they produce more letters when they are writing stories if they
use ballpoint or felt-tip pens (Askov and Peck, 1982).
WHAT SHOULD BE REMEMBERED WHEN SELECTING A HANDWRITING INSTRUCTION PROGRAM?
Although there is a major concern about the difficulty children encounter
when making the transition from printing to cursive writing, research has not
shown one teaching method to be superior to another. For example, research does
not show that D'Nealian, one of the newer methods, is better than Zaner-Bloser,
a traditional method, for children during the transition. In one study, first
graders trained to print in either D'Nealian or Zaner-Bloser produced initial
cursive letters of similar quality. In another, children in the transition group
produced more legible work if they had had Zaner-Bloser training. However,
children in the D'Nealian group reversed fewer letters (Trap-Porter and others,
1984; Farris, 1982).
Since there does not seem to be a "best" method, some guidelines are in
order. Effective model handwriting programs have been found to have the
following characteristics: they provide opportunities for students to verbalize
the rules of letter formation and to evaluate their own success; they also
combine verbal and visual feedback, i.e., teacher explanation and demonstration,
with rewriting or reinforcement (Furner, 1985).
Regardless of the program, copying leads to better results than just tracing
or discrimination training (which helps one to read a letter more than to write
it). However, children do not transfer knowledge of letters learned by copying
to letters that they have not yet learned to copy, unless there is some
demonstration by the teacher or discrimination training. When verbal
instructions, such as rules for correct letter formation, are added to the
demonstration, children do even better (Peck and others, 1980).
FOR MORE INFORMATION
Armitage, Doreen, and Harold Ratzlaff. "The Non-Correlation of Printing and
Writing Skills." JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH 78 (1985): 174-177.
Askov, Eunice N., and Michaeleen Peck. "Handwriting." In ENCYCLOPEDIA OF
EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH, 5th ed., ed. by Harold E. Mitzel, John Hardin Best, and
William Rabinowitz. New York: The Free Press, 1982.
Duvall, Betty. "KINDERGARTEN PERFORMANCE FOR READING AND MATCHING FOUR STYLES
OF HANDWRITING." 1986. CS 209 466.
EL-HI TEXTBOOKS AND SERIALS IN PRINT, 1985. New York: Bowker, 1985.
Farris, Pamela J. "A COMPARISON OF HANDWRITING STRATEGIES FOR PRIMARY GRADE
STUDENTS." 1982. ED 263 560.
Furner, Beatrice A. "Handwriting Instruction for a High-Tech Society: Will
Handwriting Be Necessary?" Paper presented at the National Council of Teachers
of English Spring Conference, Houston, Texas, March 1985. ED 257 119.
Peck, Michaeleen, Eunice N. Askov, and Steven H. Fairchild. "Another Decade
of Research in Handwriting: Progress and Prospect in the 1970s." JOURNAL OF
EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH 73 (1980): 283-298.
Trap-Porter, Jennifer, Mary Ann Gladden, David S. Hill, and John O. Cooper.
"Space Size and Accuracy of Second and Third Grade Students' Cursive
Handwriting." JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH 76 (1983): 231-233.
Trap-Porter, Jennifer, John O. Cooper, David S. Hill, Karen Swisher, and
Louis J. LaNunziata. "D'Nealian and Zaner-Bloser Manuscript Alphabets and
Initial Transition to Cursive Handwriting." JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH 77