ERIC Identifier: ED358198
Publication Date: 1993-05-00
Author: Yates, Larry
Source: ERIC Clearinghouse on Urban
Education New York NY.
Building a Successful Parent Center in an Urban School.
ERIC/CUE Digest, Number 90.
Many teachers and administrators, particularly in urban schools, believe that
parents do not care about their children's schooling. Conversely, many parents
believe that school professionals are arrogant and unhelpful. These barriers of
misunderstanding and mistrust persist because parents and educators do not know
each other and do not work together. The solution is to have more parents in the
schools, not just as visitors but rather as participants: "The tone and content
of school conversations about parents and their communities change when parents
are physically present in the building. It is difficult for school employees to
say, 'The parents just don't care,' when caring parents can be seen daily"
Thus, many Federal and local programs to improve the achievement of urban and
disadvantaged students mandate and fund a parent involvement component. One type
of parent participation program--the operation of a parent center in the
school--has been especially successful. This digest presents the principles and
practices of vital and ongoing centers so that parents and staff can use them
when developing their own center.
MODELS FOR BUILDING A CENTER
A successful center begins
with the adoption of a model, or philosophy, to guide parents and staff. In her
comparison of home-school collaboration philosophies, Swap (1990) describes
three models: (1) school to home transmission, (2) partnership for school
success, and (3)interactive learning. The school to home transmission model is
one-sided; parents receive information from the school but have little
opportunity to provide information or contribute anything else. The partnership
for school success model is too ambitious for many urban schools; parents are
required to become full partners in governing the school, and, often, poor
parents have too little time and too many hardships to concentrate on their
children's schooling. This model also requires enormous time and effort from
The interactive learning model, on the other hand, does not demand too much
from either the parents or the school. It does ask parents to draw upon their
diverse cultures and to contribute some time and talent to enrich their
children's education. It asks planners to "incorporate the views, values,
history, and learning styles of minority families into the fabric of the school
and curriculum," and "to support increased achievement of minority children in
the school" (Swap, 1990).
INTERACTIVE LEARNING MODEL PRINCIPLES FOR PLANNING A
The four principles governing a parent center using the interactive
learning model are discussed below:
PARENTS HAVE THEIR OWN PLACE
Plan Their Center. Parents need a place in the school, and the school needs them
there. A center of their own, designed by the parents themselves, with the help
of the school staff, provides the best way for parents to feel truly welcome at
school. In planning the center, parents and school staff should consider the
what their families need from the center, and what the families can contribute
to support it;
how families feel toward the school, and how school staff feels and acts toward
what resources are available in the school and community;
what the obstacles are and how to overcome them; and
what realistic goals should be set.
Usually, the parents' next major task is to hold their first large parents'
meeting. They might meet in a parent's home, a church, or a community center if
they do not yet feel comfortable in the school.
contact is a must. Especially at the start of a center, parents and school staff
must recruit other parents by talking face-to-face with them, even by visiting
their homes (D'Angelo & Adler, 1991). No other communication is nearly as
persuasive--neither signs, mailed invitations, nor telephone calls.
Lead and Set Priorities. School staff might start the recruitment, but parents
must take the lead soon. Moreover, parents should set the priorities for center
activities. At the start of one center in an elementary school, for example,
parents wanted to tackle the threats of teenage pregnancy and AIDS, even though
the staff was more concerned with parents' reading to their children. Center
planners first addressed the parents' concerns and then the staff's, which meant
that the parents controlled their own agenda. Usually, however, parents and
staff agree. For example, many parents at two centers wanted to speak and read
English better in order to help their children with schoolwork and to
participate in school activities. So, they set up English as a Second Language
classes for themselves (Heleen, 1990).
Staff Their Center. A center that is a place for parents should also be staffed
by parents. In some schools, parents are hired as center coordinators (Davies,
1991). Their salaries and other expenses are paid by Chapter 1 and/or other
supplemental funds. They host other parents who visit, recruit volunteers, track
down parents of sick children, organize center activities, and make
all-important home visits. They are joined by parent volunteers who work in the
center and classrooms, and escort classes on field trips.
EVERYONE LEARNS FROM EVERYONE ELSE
Unreachable Are Reachable. For an urban school center to succeed, its organizers
must enlist all parents, and enlist them as both teachers and learners. Too
often, educators regard poor parents as unreachable. For many poor parents, it
is schools that are unreachable. Nevertheless, many fathers, teenage mothers,
and seriously troubled families are difficult, if not impossible, to recruit and
retain. To have the best chance at recruiting and engaging members, a center
should use a variety of methods and activities.
A Boston center reaches fathers, grandfathers, and uncles with Fathers'
Breakfasts. With these Breakfasts, mothers acknowledge the importance of the
males' care for their children (Johnson, 1990). The same center also invites
fathers to work with other fathers on carpentry projects. Another center reaches
teenage mothers by appealing to their mothers, and offering small useful gifts
to teenagers who attend parenting workshops. At the insistence of their mothers,
some daughters attend in order to claim the gifts. Yet another center reaches
at-risk families with home visits and counseling by social agencies (Nicolau
& Ramos, 1990).
Children Are the Attraction of the Center. Though the center is for parents,
their children are the reason that parents are there. Therefore, the children
should be present in spirit and sometimes in person. First, a center should
recognize students' achievements. In one school, teachers personally invite
parents to view their children's prize works exhibited at the center. In
another, students and their parents attend center award dinners (Heleen, 1990).
Second, a center can help students directly. Children come to one center after
school for tutoring by parent volunteers, preferring the center to their empty
houses or the streets. The program has gotten so popular that some teachers now
stay late to tutor (Nicolau & Ramos, 1990).
Interact with Staff. The center should be a place where parents interact with
school staff: the "key to [parent] involvement may not be with the families per
se but may depend on the professionals' commitment to enhance the collaborative
relationship with the family" (Correa, 1989).
In one school, students, parents, and teachers set goals together and sign
learning contracts. These contracts are signed and executed at a parent center,
a less intimidating place than at teachers' desks. Reflecting the core idea of
the interactive model, a center can hold discussions for staff to learn parents'
cultures and for parents to learn the school's goals and programs. Finally, in
one school, teachers and parents form teams to resolve conflicts between
families and the school (Davies, 1991).
PARENT CENTER IS ESSENTIAL TO THE SCHOOL'S OPERATION
Center Takes over Business with Parents. To become an integral part of a school,
a parent center should: (1) take over much of the school's dealings with
parents, (2) create and distribute vital information, and (3) receive adequate
resources to accomplish (1) and (2). By assuming most parent business, the
center lessens congestion in the school office and treats parents with patience
If the center is near school offices, it can supply family information easily
and give parents and the principal access to each other. It must have files and
equipment, particularly a telephone (Davies, 1991). It especially needs a
coordinator who relates well to parents and devotes much time to establishing
Center Distributes GOOD NEWS. A successful center conveys information both ways
that parents and the school need for their respective jobs. One center provides
students with bags for taking home books and urges parents to read aloud to
their children. As Johnson (1990) points out, the book bags are more good news
that the center accentuates. Too often, urban parents hear only bad news from
school. In addition to good news, they need information about their children's
schoolwork and even a place to practice their tutoring skills, which are
functions of a parent center (D'Angelo & Adler, 1991). Conversely, the
center gathers information about families that helps the educators.
THE CENTER IS ACCESSIBLE AND HOSPITABLE
The center should be open when parents can come to it. In one school, staff and
volunteers are there before and after school, as well as during the day, to
greet parents. Its activities are scheduled when parents can attend, in the
evenings after mealtime. Also, parents are more likely to attend center
activities when daycare and recreation for older children are provided (Nicolau
The center should be a place where parents feel at home and enjoy themselves,
even as they learn. Not every activity can be a party, but neither should
serious business drive parents away. Activities should be a mixture of business
and fun. As for the center itself, it can be furnished comfortably with adult
furniture, perhaps donated or solicited by parents. It can also be remodeled and
decorated by parents. And, the center can offer refreshments, however small.
When parents drink coffee with other parents and staff, and share information
about how they can help their children, then the center is a success.
Correa, V. (1989). Involving culturally diverse
families in the educational process. In S. H. Fradd & M. J. Weismantel
(Eds.), Meeting the needs of culturally and linguistically different students: A
handbook for educators. Boston: College-Hill. (ED 347 221)
D'Angelo, D. A., & Adler, C. R. (1991, January). Chapter 1: A catalyst
for improving parent involvement. Phi Delta Kappan, 75(5), 350-354. (EJ 419 903)
Davies, D. (1991, January). Schools reaching out: Families, school, and
community. Phi Delta Kappan, 75(5), 376-382. (EJ 419 909)
Heleen, O. (1990, Spring). Schools reaching out: An introduction. Equity
& Choice, 5(3), 5-8. (EJ 415 947)
Johnson, V. (1990, Spring). Schools reaching out: Changing the message to
"good news." Equity & Choice, 5(3), 20-24. (EJ 415 949)
Nicolau, S., & Ramos, C. L. (1990). Together is better: Building strong
relationships between schools and Hispanic parents. Washington, DC: Hispanic
Policy Development Project. (ED 325 543)
Swap, S. M. (1990, Spring). Comparing three philosophies of home-school
collaboration. Equity & Choice, 5(3), 9-19. (EJ 415 948)