ERIC Identifier: ED355197
Publication Date: 1993-02-00
Author: Abdal-Haqq, Ismat
Source: ERIC Clearinghouse on
Teacher Education Washington DC.
Integrated Services: New Roles for Schools, New Challenges for
Teacher Education. ERIC Digest.
Integrated services (IS) is a coordinated, holistic approach to addressing
the needs of children--particularly the complex, interrelated problems of
at-risk children--by providing a comprehensive range of educational and human
services. In these programs, schools are the hub of a coordinated network of
service providers and the link between these service providers and children and
their families. School-linked IS programs focus on prevention, promoting
wellness for children and their families, and providing services that overcome
barriers to school readiness and academic success (Center for Research, 1992).
These services include drug abuse counseling, gang-diversion programs, health
care, teen pregnancy counseling, job training and counseling, tutoring and
remedial education, mentoring, drop-out prevention, after-school care, literacy
training, parent education, mental health services, child abuse programs,
recreation, programs to reduce intergroup tensions and student conflict, and
programs for homeless youth ("Evaluation in a Sample," 1992).
Most integrated services programs target
at-risk youth, children who have a high probability of not receiving sufficient
education to become independent, successful, and productive adults (Center for
the Study, 1992). Children considered at risk include: children of migrant
workers, adjudicated youth, limited-English-speaking youth, pregnant minors,
children in single-parent families, children who live in poverty, children with
a record of poor attendance or behavior problems, abused children, and homeless
children ("Evaluation in a Sample," 1992; Olenick & McCroskey, 1992).
The argument for implementing school-linked
integrated services rests on six basic premises.
1. All facets of a child's well-being impact on his or her potential for
academic success. (Kirst, 1990).
2. Demographic trends indicate that an increasing number of American
school-age children can be considered at-risk for school failure and other
social problems such as drug abuse and incarceration (Hodgkinson, 1989; Usdan,
3. Prevention is more cost-effective for society than correction or
remediation. For example, Hodgkinson (1989) reports that there is an established
relationship between dropping out of school and the probability of committing a
crime and that drop-out prevention is cheaper in the long run than the cost of
4. At-risk children come to school with multiple problems that cut across
conventional health, social, and education systems boundaries, problems that
schools are ill-equipped to handle alone (Kirst, 1990).
5. The current system of child-related service delivery is fragmented, often
characterized by duplication, waste, and lack of coordination. Consequently,
many children fall through the cracks and don't get the services they need
6. Because schools have sustained, long-term contact with the majority of
children, they are the logical gateway for providing multiple services to
children (Kirst, 1990).
There is no one model for school-linked
integrated services programs. Some programs are school-based, with services
delivered on-site by school personnel, while other programs provide services at
community agencies, human services offices, churches, or in the student's home.
However, model programs are family-focused, prevention-oriented,
community-centered, and responsive to local needs. In addition, they offer a
comprehensive continuum of services; they avoid duplication and gaps in services
through communication and collaboration among service providers; and they are
designed so that each child and family has a personal relationship with program
staff (Robinson, 1990). Successful programs are also characterized by shared
governance, collaborative funding and planning, ownership by the school,
redefined school faculty roles, establishment of a case manager position,
gradual phase-in of program components, and extensive training and staff
development (Center for Research, 1992; Pollard, 1990).
Collaboration and coordination among
educational and human services providers are the cornerstones of successful
school-linked integrated services programs. However, state and federal
regulations often impose confidentiality requirements that block the sharing of
information among service providers. There are many school professionals and
others who believe that involvement in social service delivery will overburden
the schools and divert time and resources from the schools' primary mission
("Analysis," 1992; Ooms & Owens, 1991).
School-based or school-linked services may not be the most viable approach
for some students and their families. In many communities schools are not viewed
as sympathetic to the interests and concerns of local residents. Many of the
neediest youth are drop-outs who no longer have regular contact with any school.
The existence of magnet schools and busing often means that a needy child's
school is not conveniently located for family visits or after-school activities.
For those who are unable or unwilling to utilize school-linked services,
multiple access points to social services are needed (Chaskin & Richman,
IMPLICATIONS FOR TEACHER EDUCATION
Teachers need to be
trained to identify students who need intervention; to handle problems in the
classroom; to locate sources of help for students; to take part in the
collaborative process; and to view themselves as part of a team effort to
address the academic, social, and health development of students (Center for
Research, 1992; Bucci & Reitzammer, 1992). At present, integrated
services-related teacher education consists primarily of inservice workshops.
Robinson and Masty (1989) recommend interdisciplinary training at the preservice
level. To implement these kinds of programs, higher education institutions will
need to restructure their professional programs in ways that facilitate
interprofessional training since professional schools have traditionally
operated in isolation from one another (The Health/Education Connection, 1990;
However, the growing interest in school-linked integrated services has
stimulated teacher educators to initiate programs to remedy this situation. For
example, Ohio State University (Columbus) has developed a project to promote
interprofessional training: the Commission on Interprofessional Education and
Practice. The American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education recently
received a $1.4 million grant from the DeWitt Wallace-Reader's Digest Fund to
establish a 3-year demonstration project to facilitate incorporation of health
and human services training into teacher education programs. The four sites
which were funded are Jackson State University (Mississippi), University of
Louisville (Kentucky), University of New Mexico (Albuquerque), and University of
Washington (Seattle) (Snider, 1992).
References identified with an EJ or ED number
have been abstracted and are in the ERIC database. Journal articles (EJ) should
be available at most research libraries; documents (ED) are available in ERIC
microfiche collections at more than 700 locations. Documents can also be ordered
through the ERIC Document Reproduction Service: (800) 443-ERIC. References
followed by an SP number were being processed for the ERIC database at the time
of publication. For more information contact the ERIC Clearinghouse on Teacher
Education, One Dupont Circle, NW, Suite 610, Washington, DC 20036-1186; (202)
Analysis. (1992). The Future of Children, 2(1), 6-18.
Bucci, J. A., & Reitzammer, A. F. (1992). Collaboration with health and
social service professionals: Preparing teachers for new roles. Journal of
Teacher Education, 43(4), 290-295.
Center for Research on Effective Schooling for Disadvantaged Students. Johns
Hopkins University. (1992, July). Integrate services to remove barriers. CDC, p.
Center for the Study and Teaching of At-Risk Students. University of
Washington. (1992). The interprofessional case management guidelines being
demonstrated under USDOE grant no. S201C12560 entitled "Washington State
Coordinated Service Initiative for At-Risk Youth and Families" (CFDA No.
84.201C). Seattle, WA: Author.
Chaskin, R., & Richman, H. A. (1992). Concerns about school-linked
services: Institution-based versus community-based models. The Future of
Children, 2(1), 107-117.
Evaluation in a sample of current school-linked service efforts. Appendix B.
(1992). The Future of Children, 2(1), 135-144.
The health/education connection. Initiating dialog on integrated services to
children at risk and their families. Symposium. (1990, March). Washington, DC:
American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education; American Academy of
Pediatrics; and Maternal and Child Health Bureau, U.S. Department of Health and
Hodgkinson, H. L. (1989). The same client: The demographics of education and
service delivery systems. Washington, DC: Institute for Educational Leadership.
ED 312 757
Kirst, M. W. (1990, April). Improving children's services: Overcoming
barriers, creating new opportunities. Paper presented at the annual meeting of
the American Educational Research Association, Boston.
Olenick, M., & McCroskey, J. (1992). Social and health services in Los
Angeles County Schools: Countywide data on availability, need and funding. Los
Angeles: Los Angeles Roundtable for Children & Los Angeles County Office of
Ooms, T., & Owen, T. (1991). Promoting adolescent health and well-being
through school-linked, multi-service, family-friendly programs. Washington, DC:
American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy, Research and Education
Foundation. SP 033 956
Pollard, J. S. (1990, May). School-linked services--So that schools can
educate & children can learn. Part 1. Insights on Educational Policy and
Practice No. 20, p. 1-4.
Robinson, E. R., & Mastny, A. Y. (1989). Linking schools & community
services. A practical guide. Newark, NJ: Center for Community Education, School
of Social Work, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey. ED 318 929
Robinson, S. (1990). Putting the pieces together: Survey of state systems for
children in crisis. Denver, CO: National Conference of State Legislatures.
Snider, K. (1992, November 30). Sites selected for comprehensive services
project. AACTE Briefs, 13(18), p. 1, 7.
Usdan, M. (1990). Restructuring American educational systems and programs to
accommodate a new health agenda for youth. Journal of School Health, 60(4),