ERIC Identifier: ED353009
Publication Date: 1984-06-00
Author: Not Listed
Source: ERIC Clearinghouse for Junior Colleges Los
Two-Year Colleges. ERIC Digest.
* community colleges--publicly supported institutions
offering comprehensive programs of career-related, remedial, and freshman and
sophomore studies, along with community services.
technical institutes--institutions offering primarily preparation for
junior colleges--institutions offering primarily freshman and sophomore studies.
The term "junior college" was originally used to refer to any two-year college.
As a result, a college that offers a comprehensive curriculum adapted to its
community may be named junior college although it has the characteristics of a
WHAT ARE THE DEFINING CHARACTERISTICS OF COMMUNITY COLLEGES?
democratic--low tuition, open admissions, and geographical and social
comprehensive--offering many types of curricula for a wide range of students
community-centered--locally responsive, offering programs for individuals of all
ages and educational levels
dedicated to life-long education--offering programs for individuals of all ages
and educational levels
adaptable--to student differences, community needs and social change
WHERE ARE TWO-YEAR COLLEGES LOCATED? HOW MANY ARE IN THE U.S.?
Institutions offering short-cycle, postsecondary education exist in many
countries, including Canada, Norway, Australia, Japan, Yugoslavia, Kenya, Great
Britain, the Republic of China, and Latin America.
1,219 community, junior, and technical colleges are located in the U.S. and its
1,064 of the two-year colleges in the U.S. and its territories are public
institutions; 155 are private institutions.
WHAT PROGRAMS DO THESE INSTITUTIONS OFFER?
colleges vary widely in their program offerings.
offer one or more of the following programs:
vocations/occupation programs leading to a certificate or an associate degree in
transfer/liberal arts programs designed for students who plan to obtain a
baccalaureate degree; these programs lead to an associate degree in science or
community education and personal interest courses which do not award academic
developmental/remedial programs designed to prepare students to enter degree or
certificate programs by improving their communication and mathematical skills
WHO ATTENDS TWO-YEAR COLLEGES IN THE U.S.?
40% of the first-time, full-time freshmen undergraduates in the U.S. whose goal
is the bachelors degree, enrolled in community, junior, or technical college in
Two-year colleges enrolled 1.8 million full-time and over 3 million part-time
students in credit courses in Fall 1983.
Fall 1982 enrollment increased 3% over Fall 1981.
The median age of community college students is between 18 and 22.
The average age of community college students is between 28 and 31.
Women make up to 53% of community college enrollments (1983).
The percentage of minority group students who enroll in postsecondary
institutions that are enrolled in community colleges is as follows: Blacks
43.5%; American Indians 55%; Asians/Pacific Islanders 45%; and Hispanics 55.5%
63% of the credit students enrolled in Fall 1983 attended part-time.
1982, 19% of foreign students who attended college in the U.S. enrolled in
WHAT ARE THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE FACULTY?
251,606 faculty members teach in two-year institutions.
About 57% of the faculty are part-time instructors.
There are 18,228 administrators in community colleges; a 2% drop from the number
of administrators in 1982.
The average salary for assistant professors in public two-year colleges in
1982-83 was $20, 761; an increase of 7.4% over 1981-82.
275 two-year colleges had collective bargaining agreements. Bargaining agents
were recognized at 283 two-year colleges.
HOW ARE PUBLIC TWO-YEAR COLLEGES FINANCED?
Property taxes, state appropriations, and tuition comprise most of the operating
State appropriations accounted for 47.6% of the operating revenue for public
two-year colleges in 1981-82.
Tuition accounted for 16.2% of the revenue in 1981-82.
Average charges in 1983 for tuition and fees were approximately $588 at public
community colleges and $2,752 at private two-year colleges.
WHAT ORGANIZATIONS ARE CONCERNED WITH TWO-YEAR COLLEGES?
Association of Community and Junior Colleges
Dupont Circle, N.W., Suite 410
of Canadian Community Colleges
Director: J.P. Robert LaRose
Consumers Road, Suite 203
Clearinghouse for Junior Colleges
Arthur M. Cohen
Angeles, CA 90024
for the Study of Community Colleges
Director: Florence B. Brawer
Angeles, CA 90024
for Innovation in the Community College
Director: Terry O'Banion
South Pointe Drive
Hills, CA 92653
of Community College Trustees
Little River Turnpike
College Humanities Association
College Social Science Association
Many other groups formed around circular areas and special interests are
active in the two-year college field.
WHAT PERIODICALS FOCUS ON TWO-YEAR COLLEGES?
and Junior College Journal
Dupont Circle, N.W., Suite 410
Directions for Community Colleges
Francisco, CA 94104
College Research Quarterly
Vermont Avenue, N.W.
Polytechnic Institute and State University
WHERE CAN I OBTAIN ADDITIONAL INFORMATION?
Cohen, A. M.
Dateline: Heretical Concepts for the Community College. Beverly Hills: Glencoe
Cohen, A. M., and Brawer. F. B. The American Community College. San
Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1982.
Cohen, A. M., and Brawer, F. B. The Two-Year Instructor Today. New York:
Gleazer, E. J., Jr. The Community College: Values, Vision, and Vitality.
Washington, D. C.: American Association of Community and Junior Colleges, 1980.
Gleazer, E. J., Jr. Project Focus: A Forecast Study of Community Colleges.
New York: McGraw-Hill, 1973.
Knoell, D., and McIntyre, C. Planning Colleges for the Community. San
Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1974.
Koos, L. V. The Community College Student. Gainesville: University of Florida
Monroe, C. R. Profile of the Community College. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass,
Palinchak, R. The Evolution of the Community College. Metuchen. N.J.: The
Scarecrow Press, 1973.
Thornton, J. W. The Community and Junior College. New York: Wiley, 1972.
Vaughan, G. B. (Ed.) Questioning the Community College Role. New Directions
for Community College. No. 4. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1980.
Vaughan, G. B., and Associates. Issues for Community College Leaders in a New
Era. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1983.
Zwerling L. S. Second Best: The Crisis of the Community College. New York: