ERIC Identifier: ED353009
Publication Date: 1984-06-00
Author: Not Listed
Source: ERIC Clearinghouse for Junior Colleges Los Angeles CA.
Two-Year Colleges. ERIC Digest.
* community colleges--publicly supported institutions offering comprehensive programs of career-related, remedial, and freshman and sophomore studies, along with community services.
* technical institutes--institutions offering primarily preparation for technological occupations.
* junior colleges--institutions offering primarily freshman and sophomore studies. The term "junior college" was originally used to refer to any two-year college. As a result, a college that offers a comprehensive curriculum adapted to its community may be named junior college although it has the characteristics of a community college.
WHAT ARE THE DEFINING CHARACTERISTICS OF COMMUNITY COLLEGES?
* democratic--low tuition, open admissions, and geographical and social accessibility
* comprehensive--offering many types of curricula for a wide range of students
* community-centered--locally responsive, offering programs for individuals of all ages and educational levels
* dedicated to life-long education--offering programs for individuals of all ages and educational levels
* adaptable--to student differences, community needs and social change
WHERE ARE TWO-YEAR COLLEGES LOCATED? HOW MANY ARE IN THE U.S.?
* Institutions offering short-cycle, postsecondary education exist in many countries, including Canada, Norway, Australia, Japan, Yugoslavia, Kenya, Great Britain, the Republic of China, and Latin America.
* 1,219 community, junior, and technical colleges are located in the U.S. and its territories.
* 1,064 of the two-year colleges in the U.S. and its territories are public institutions; 155 are private institutions.
WHAT PROGRAMS DO THESE INSTITUTIONS OFFER?
Two-year colleges vary widely in their program offerings.
Most offer one or more of the following programs:
* vocations/occupation programs leading to a certificate or an associate degree in applied science
* transfer/liberal arts programs designed for students who plan to obtain a baccalaureate degree; these programs lead to an associate degree in science or the arts
* community education and personal interest courses which do not award academic credit
* developmental/remedial programs designed to prepare students to enter degree or certificate programs by improving their communication and mathematical skills
WHO ATTENDS TWO-YEAR COLLEGES IN THE U.S.?
* 40% of the first-time, full-time freshmen undergraduates in the U.S. whose goal is the bachelors degree, enrolled in community, junior, or technical college in Fall 1983.
* Two-year colleges enrolled 1.8 million full-time and over 3 million part-time students in credit courses in Fall 1983.
* Fall 1982 enrollment increased 3% over Fall 1981.
* The median age of community college students is between 18 and 22.
* The average age of community college students is between 28 and 31.
* Women make up to 53% of community college enrollments (1983).
* The percentage of minority group students who enroll in postsecondary institutions that are enrolled in community colleges is as follows: Blacks 43.5%; American Indians 55%; Asians/Pacific Islanders 45%; and Hispanics 55.5% (1982).
* 63% of the credit students enrolled in Fall 1983 attended part-time.
* In 1982, 19% of foreign students who attended college in the U.S. enrolled in two-year colleges.
WHAT ARE THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE FACULTY?
* 251,606 faculty members teach in two-year institutions.
* About 57% of the faculty are part-time instructors.
* There are 18,228 administrators in community colleges; a 2% drop from the number of administrators in 1982.
* The average salary for assistant professors in public two-year colleges in 1982-83 was $20, 761; an increase of 7.4% over 1981-82.
* 275 two-year colleges had collective bargaining agreements. Bargaining agents were recognized at 283 two-year colleges.
HOW ARE PUBLIC TWO-YEAR COLLEGES FINANCED?
* Property taxes, state appropriations, and tuition comprise most of the operating funds.
* State appropriations accounted for 47.6% of the operating revenue for public two-year colleges in 1981-82.
* Tuition accounted for 16.2% of the revenue in 1981-82.
* Average charges in 1983 for tuition and fees were approximately $588 at public community colleges and $2,752 at private two-year colleges.
WHAT ORGANIZATIONS ARE CONCERNED WITH TWO-YEAR COLLEGES?
American Association of Community and Junior Colleges
President: Dale Parnell
One Dupont Circle, N.W., Suite 410
Washington, DC 20036
Association of Canadian Community Colleges
Executive Director: J.P. Robert LaRose
211 Consumers Road, Suite 203
Canada M2J 4G8
ERIC Clearinghouse for Junior Colleges
Director: Arthur M. Cohen
8118 Math-Sciences Building
University of California
Los Angeles, CA 90024
Center for the Study of Community Colleges
Research Director: Florence B. Brawer
1047 Gayley Avenue
Los Angeles, CA 90024
League for Innovation in the Community College
Executive Director: Terry O'Banion
23276 South Pointe Drive
Laguna Hills, CA 92653
Association of Community College Trustees
President: William Meardy
6928 Little River Turnpike
Annandale, VA 22030
Community College Humanities Association
President: Don Schmeltekopf
1033 Springfield Avenue
Cranford, NJ 07016
Community College Social Science Association
President: Mike Zalampas
Jefferson Community College
Louisville, KY 40202
Many other groups formed around circular areas and special interests are active in the two-year college field.
WHAT PERIODICALS FOCUS ON TWO-YEAR COLLEGES?
Community College Review
P.O. Box 5504
Raleigh, NC 27650
Community and Junior College Journal
One Dupont Circle, N.W., Suite 410
Washington, DC 20036
New Directions for Community Colleges
Jossey-Bass Inc., Publishers
433 California Street
San Francisco, CA 94104
Community/Junior College Research Quarterly
Hemisphere Publishing Corporation
1010 Vermont Avenue, N.W.
Washington, DC 20005
Community Services Catalyst
College of Education
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
Blacksburg, VA 24061
WHERE CAN I OBTAIN ADDITIONAL INFORMATION?
Cohen, A. M. Dateline: Heretical Concepts for the Community College. Beverly Hills: Glencoe Press, 1969.
Cohen, A. M., and Brawer. F. B. The American Community College. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1982.
Cohen, A. M., and Brawer, F. B. The Two-Year Instructor Today. New York: Praeger, 1977.
Gleazer, E. J., Jr. The Community College: Values, Vision, and Vitality. Washington, D. C.: American Association of Community and Junior Colleges, 1980.
Gleazer, E. J., Jr. Project Focus: A Forecast Study of Community Colleges. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1973.
Knoell, D., and McIntyre, C. Planning Colleges for the Community. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1974.
Koos, L. V. The Community College Student. Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1970.
Monroe, C. R. Profile of the Community College. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1972.
Palinchak, R. The Evolution of the Community College. Metuchen. N.J.: The Scarecrow Press, 1973.
Thornton, J. W. The Community and Junior College. New York: Wiley, 1972.
Vaughan, G. B. (Ed.) Questioning the Community College Role. New Directions for Community College. No. 4. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1980.
Vaughan, G. B., and Associates. Issues for Community College Leaders in a New Era. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1983.
Zwerling L. S. Second Best: The Crisis of the Community College. New York:
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