ERIC Identifier: ED353009
Publication Date: 1984-06-00
Author: Not Listed
Source: ERIC Clearinghouse for Junior Colleges Los Angeles CA.

Two-Year Colleges. ERIC Digest.


* community colleges--publicly supported institutions offering comprehensive programs of career-related, remedial, and freshman and sophomore studies, along with community services.

* technical institutes--institutions offering primarily preparation for technological occupations.

* junior colleges--institutions offering primarily freshman and sophomore studies. The term "junior college" was originally used to refer to any two-year college. As a result, a college that offers a comprehensive curriculum adapted to its community may be named junior college although it has the characteristics of a community college.

WHAT ARE THE DEFINING CHARACTERISTICS OF COMMUNITY COLLEGES?

* democratic--low tuition, open admissions, and geographical and social accessibility

* comprehensive--offering many types of curricula for a wide range of students

* community-centered--locally responsive, offering programs for individuals of all ages and educational levels

* dedicated to life-long education--offering programs for individuals of all ages and educational levels

* adaptable--to student differences, community needs and social change

WHERE ARE TWO-YEAR COLLEGES LOCATED? HOW MANY ARE IN THE U.S.?

* Institutions offering short-cycle, postsecondary education exist in many countries, including Canada, Norway, Australia, Japan, Yugoslavia, Kenya, Great Britain, the Republic of China, and Latin America.

* 1,219 community, junior, and technical colleges are located in the U.S. and its territories.

* 1,064 of the two-year colleges in the U.S. and its territories are public institutions; 155 are private institutions.

WHAT PROGRAMS DO THESE INSTITUTIONS OFFER?

Two-year colleges vary widely in their program offerings.

Most offer one or more of the following programs:

* vocations/occupation programs leading to a certificate or an associate degree in applied science

* transfer/liberal arts programs designed for students who plan to obtain a baccalaureate degree; these programs lead to an associate degree in science or the arts

* community education and personal interest courses which do not award academic credit

* developmental/remedial programs designed to prepare students to enter degree or certificate programs by improving their communication and mathematical skills

WHO ATTENDS TWO-YEAR COLLEGES IN THE U.S.?

* 40% of the first-time, full-time freshmen undergraduates in the U.S. whose goal is the bachelors degree, enrolled in community, junior, or technical college in Fall 1983.

* Two-year colleges enrolled 1.8 million full-time and over 3 million part-time students in credit courses in Fall 1983.

* Fall 1982 enrollment increased 3% over Fall 1981.

* The median age of community college students is between 18 and 22.

* The average age of community college students is between 28 and 31.

* Women make up to 53% of community college enrollments (1983).

* The percentage of minority group students who enroll in postsecondary institutions that are enrolled in community colleges is as follows: Blacks 43.5%; American Indians 55%; Asians/Pacific Islanders 45%; and Hispanics 55.5% (1982).

* 63% of the credit students enrolled in Fall 1983 attended part-time.

* In 1982, 19% of foreign students who attended college in the U.S. enrolled in two-year colleges.

WHAT ARE THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE FACULTY?

* 251,606 faculty members teach in two-year institutions.

* About 57% of the faculty are part-time instructors.

* There are 18,228 administrators in community colleges; a 2% drop from the number of administrators in 1982.

* The average salary for assistant professors in public two-year colleges in 1982-83 was $20, 761; an increase of 7.4% over 1981-82.

* 275 two-year colleges had collective bargaining agreements. Bargaining agents were recognized at 283 two-year colleges.

HOW ARE PUBLIC TWO-YEAR COLLEGES FINANCED?

* Property taxes, state appropriations, and tuition comprise most of the operating funds.

* State appropriations accounted for 47.6% of the operating revenue for public two-year colleges in 1981-82.

* Tuition accounted for 16.2% of the revenue in 1981-82.

* Average charges in 1983 for tuition and fees were approximately $588 at public community colleges and $2,752 at private two-year colleges.

WHAT ORGANIZATIONS ARE CONCERNED WITH TWO-YEAR COLLEGES?

American Association of Community and Junior Colleges

President: Dale Parnell

One Dupont Circle, N.W., Suite 410

Washington, DC 20036

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Association of Canadian Community Colleges

Executive Director: J.P. Robert LaRose

211 Consumers Road, Suite 203

Willowdale, Ontario

Canada M2J 4G8

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ERIC Clearinghouse for Junior Colleges

Director: Arthur M. Cohen

8118 Math-Sciences Building

University of California

Los Angeles, CA 90024

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Center for the Study of Community Colleges

Research Director: Florence B. Brawer

1047 Gayley Avenue

Los Angeles, CA 90024

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League for Innovation in the Community College

Executive Director: Terry O'Banion

23276 South Pointe Drive

Laguna Hills, CA 92653

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Association of Community College Trustees

President: William Meardy

6928 Little River Turnpike

Annandale, VA 22030

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Community College Humanities Association

President: Don Schmeltekopf

Union College

1033 Springfield Avenue

Cranford, NJ 07016

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Community College Social Science Association

President: Mike Zalampas

Jefferson Community College

Louisville, KY 40202

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Many other groups formed around circular areas and special interests are active in the two-year college field.

WHAT PERIODICALS FOCUS ON TWO-YEAR COLLEGES?

Community College Review

P.O. Box 5504

Raleigh, NC 27650

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Community and Junior College Journal

AACJC

One Dupont Circle, N.W., Suite 410

Washington, DC 20036

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New Directions for Community Colleges

Jossey-Bass Inc., Publishers

433 California Street

San Francisco, CA 94104

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Community/Junior College Research Quarterly

Hemisphere Publishing Corporation

1010 Vermont Avenue, N.W.

Washington, DC 20005

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Community Services Catalyst

College of Education

Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

Blacksburg, VA 24061

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WHERE CAN I OBTAIN ADDITIONAL INFORMATION?

Cohen, A. M. Dateline: Heretical Concepts for the Community College. Beverly Hills: Glencoe Press, 1969.

Cohen, A. M., and Brawer. F. B. The American Community College. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1982.

Cohen, A. M., and Brawer, F. B. The Two-Year Instructor Today. New York: Praeger, 1977.

Gleazer, E. J., Jr. The Community College: Values, Vision, and Vitality. Washington, D. C.: American Association of Community and Junior Colleges, 1980.

Gleazer, E. J., Jr. Project Focus: A Forecast Study of Community Colleges. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1973.

Knoell, D., and McIntyre, C. Planning Colleges for the Community. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1974.

Koos, L. V. The Community College Student. Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1970.

Monroe, C. R. Profile of the Community College. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1972.

Palinchak, R. The Evolution of the Community College. Metuchen. N.J.: The Scarecrow Press, 1973.

Thornton, J. W. The Community and Junior College. New York: Wiley, 1972.

Vaughan, G. B. (Ed.) Questioning the Community College Role. New Directions for Community College. No. 4. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1980.

Vaughan, G. B., and Associates. Issues for Community College Leaders in a New Era. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1983.

Zwerling L. S. Second Best: The Crisis of the Community College. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1976.

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