ERIC Identifier: ED385316
Publication Date: 1995-06-00
Author: McCarthy, J. Christopher
Clearinghouse for Community Colleges Los Angeles CA.
The Project for Adult College Education (PACE): Student
Characteristics, Perceptions, and Writing Development. ERIC Digest.
The Project for Adult College Education (PACE) is a general education core
curriculum designed for working adults. In PACE, students receive approximately
half the classroom hours in each subject area that they would in a traditional
class. The balance of time is devoted to viewing instructional television (which
is related to individual course-work) and to participating in weekend conference
lectures or activities. Concerns about the viability of the PACE curriculum led
to the research at Los Angeles Harbor College presented in this digest. The
digest takes a brief look at the history of PACE, analyzes PACE students'
characteristics, examines student perceptions of the program, and compares the
writing development of PACE students with the writing development of students in
the traditional curriculum.
The principal architect of the PACE model, Wayne
State University researcher, Otto Feinstein, targeted working adults as a
population largely neglected by higher education. His Weekend College was
designed to allow working adults greater access to college study. In the
mid-1970s, the American Federation of Teachers coined the name Project for Adult
College Education (PACE) and, with Ford Foundation support, sponsored the
implementation of PACE programs throughout the country, with individual colleges
adapting the Wayne State model to suit their needs. The first project west of
the Mississippi was initiated by the Los Angeles Community College District
(LACCD) in 1981.
The LACCD offered PACE as a complete core curriculum leading to the Associate
in Arts (AA) degree in five semesters. The goals of the PACE project as stated
by the original advisory committee included:
Providing a quality, liberal arts-based education to full-time working adults
through interdisciplinary and team-taught classes, a curriculum based upon
themes oriented to working adults, and a delivery system consisting of
television, weekend conferences, and class lectures.
Making full-time education available to students in a condensed time frame.
Offering a fully transferable curriculum.
Qualifying students for the AA degree and transfer.
Developing students' reading, writing and critical thinking skills.
THE CURRENT PACE PROGRAM
PACE's current structure is built
around a five-semester, humanities-based transfer curriculum, with students
enrolled in a block of four courses per semester. Each semester is broken into
two nine-week terms, during which students enroll in two paired courses, which
are team-taught whenever possible. Students attend classes one evening per week,
and watch two hours per week of instructional television at home. In past years,
instructional materials were broadcast via cable channels; PACE, which has
rights to Annenberg materials, now provides videotapes for student viewing at
home. Students also attend six Saturday conferences over the semester, each
generally lasting from 8:00 a.m. until 6:00p.m. Two additional half-day Saturday
conferences are scheduled for exams. Saturday conferences address
course-oriented material and try to create a liberal arts college environment
with guest speakers, films, experiential activities, and concerts.
NEED FOR THE PROGRAM
Recent research has underscored the
need for programs that take into account the barriers to higher education facing
adult students. Traditional-age students (between 18 and 22) are no longer the
norm on college campuses. Data from the National Center for Education Statistics
(1994) indicate that 38.4% of all college students in 1991 were 25 years of age
or older. At two-year institutions, 31% of fall 1991 enrollments were made up of
students who reported their age as 30 or older (Phillippe, 1995). Because of
work and family commitments, 70% of adult students attend college part-time
(Aslanian, 1993). Consequently, colleges have had to examine whether the
curriculum, and the manner in which it is offered, is accessible to adults, many
of whom work full-time. The PACE program is a model that responds to adult
NEED FOR RESEACH
Some faculty view PACE as an easy way to
earn a degree. The time devoted exclusively to a particular subject may be
between 18 and 30 hours in comparison to 54 to 60 hours in the traditional
curriculum. Critics regard the classroom instructional time as insufficient,
especially in English, the sciences, and math. They question whether students
are being mislead into believing they are ready for transfer after a
less-than-adequate foundation of lower division coursework.
PACE advocates point to the benefits of a structured course of study in which
Writing Across the Curriculum is implemented,
students work together over five semesters,
instructors dovetail courses into a cohesive whole, and
Saturday conferences allow a range of valuable learning activities that are
outside the scope of traditional lecture-oriented classes.
The PACE controversy is taking place at a time when all educational programs,
but especially nontraditional programs, are being examined in light of shrinking
funding. As colleges make choices concerning which programs are central to their
mission and futures, efforts made for special populations, such as working
adults, are often seen as expendable. Justifying a program such as PACE requires
solid evidence of its value and effectiveness.
THE CURRENT STUDY
In spring 1993, a survey was administered
to the 291 PACE students at Harbor College. Included were questions about
students' characteristics, perceptions of the program, and time spent on study.
To measure PACE's effectiveness in teaching writing skills, PACE and traditional
students who were enrolled in English 101 during the spring semester were asked
to write essays comparable to those they had completed during college
The results paint a clear picture of the
PACE student population. PACE has an older student body than does the
traditional program: 81% of PACE students are over 24 years of age, compared
with 53% of the regular college population. The PACE program has twice the
percentage of African-American students than the regular program, and a much
higher percentage of women.
The fact that 94% of PACE students plan to transfer is not surprising, as
PACE is designed as a transfer curriculum; more interesting is the finding that
46% of PACE students identify themselves as being unable to attend college
outside of the PACE format. Over half (63%) of the students indicated that they
had left college at an earlier time and returned through PACE. The fact that 94%
of PACE students work more than 30 hours per week indicates that although the
program is open to enrollment by any student, it is finding its appeal among
those for whom it was primarily designed.
STUDENT PERCEPTIONS OF PACE
Over 99% of the PACE students
gave both the program and quality of instruction passing grades, and 93% felt
that classroom time was adequate. The results on out-of-class study time
revealed that 61% of students spent less than seven hours per week studying or
working on assignments. Only 12.5% of the students studied more than 10 hours
PACE students were also asked to identify the best aspect of PACE and the
aspect they would like most to see changed. The following were frequently cited
as the best aspects of PACE:
program design, which provides a condensed curriculum and evening and Saturday
schedule, allowing working people to enroll full-time and progress in a timely
quality of instruction, and greater involvement of faculty;
students' feeling of identification with the program and sense of shared
"belongingness." Many noted that their study groups were particularly
the nature of the interdisciplinary instruction; and
coursework centered on what the students regarded as "important issues."
When asked about program elements that needed changing, the most common
responses concerned the television component. Many students felt the television
programs had little to do with the subjects being studied, and criticized the
lack of currency and the style of presentation of some programs. This problem is
being addressed by providing course-related videotapes from the Annenberg
collection for student home use. Other criticisms focused on the unavailability
of support facilities on Saturday such as the library and bookstore, and the
need for a summer component.
Student responses to questions about writing
in PACE revealed that PACE students apparently have greater communication with
teachers about written assignments than do regular community college students.
This may be due to the nature of the instructional approach or to the age of the
students, who might be less intimidated by instructors than younger students.
Also, PACE students are more likely to write papers which draw from different
sources and which take extended periods of time than do regular community
ENTRANCE AND EXIT WRITING SCORES
As evidenced by
comparisons of orientation essays and essays written after completing English
101, PACE students enter and exit with more developed writing skills than
traditional students. However, students in regular sections of English 101 show
greater writing development while in college.
The argument that PACE students exit with skills that are below the level of
traditional English 101 students does not appear to have evidence to support it.
Although PACE might not provide the opportunity for writing development that the
regular 18 week semester does, the students emerge with at least equal, and
apparently slightly better, ability to write college essays. It must be
remembered, though, that their entrance skills are also significantly better.
PACE may make up for the shortened English 101 course in part by promoting
writing across the curriculum.
PACE appears to fulfill its objective of
offering an academically viable route to the Associate Degree for working
adults. To determine whether PACE students obtain the skills needed for
successful transfer to a four-year institution, however, continued study will be
necessary. This research can move forward, though, with the confidence that the
PACE program, while in need of continued critical self-examination, is a program
which is valued by those who participate within it, and is often viewed as a
last chance for adults who have returned to college to reshape their lives. The
PACE program appears to be a model that other institutions can use to serve
Aslanian, C.B. "Trends in adult learning." THE
ADMISSION STRATEGIST, 1993, 18 (Spring), 16-19.
Feinstein, O. and Frank, A. TO EDUCATE THE PEOPLE. Michigan: Wayne State
Hudson, R. "PACE Evaluation." Los Angeles: Los Angeles Community College
District. 1989, 35pp.
National Center for Education Statistics. DIGEST OF EDUCATIONAL STATISTICS,
1994. Washington, DC: NCES, 1994.
Phillippe, K.A. (ed.) NATIONAL PROFILE OF COMMUNITY COLLEGES: TRENDS &
STATISTICS, 1995-96. Washington, D.C.: American Association of Community
Colleges, 1995. (ED 379 036)