Preparing Teachers for Conflict Resolution in
the Schools. ERIC Digest.
by Girard, Kathryn L.
Violence prevention, conflict resolution, peer mediation, peaceable
classrooms: These are the words that frame a growing movement in education.
Violence prevention connotes both a need and a program, a part of which
may address conflict resolution skills. Conflict resolution refers generally
to strategies that enable students to handle conflicts peacefully and cooperatively
outside the traditional disciplinary procedures. Peer mediation is a specific
form of conflict resolution utilizing students as neutral third parties
in resolving disputes. A peaceable classroom or school results when the
values and skills of cooperation, communication, tolerance, positive emotional
expression, and conflict resolution are taught and supported throughout
the culture of the school.
Conflict resolution in education is linked to democracy and citizenship,
developing a peaceful world, cooperative learning, multicultural education,
prejudice reduction, social justice, violence prevention and intervention,
critical thinking and problem-solving, and site-based management. In recent
years, the growth of violence in schools has fueled interest in conflict
resolution. There is, however, concern among conflict resolution practitioners
that the need for immediate fixes to problems may lead to unrealistic and
inappropriate goals and expectations. The press to address issues of social
justice and prejudice leads to similar concerns. Experienced practitioners
view conflict resolution as only one component in preparing youth to find
nonviolent responses to conflict, in promoting social justice, and in reducing
prejudice in school communities (Bettmann & Moore, 1994; Bodine, Crawford,
& Schrumpf, 1994; DeJong, 1994; Miller, 1994).
Classroom curriculum, classsroom management, and school- or district-based
programs are main entry points for conflict resolution in schools. Information
and skills find their way quietly into individual classrooms through social
studies, English, literature, science, and even math curricula, as well
as through direct instruction in communication and cooperative problem
solving. Some teachers, often in conjunction with curricular initiatives,
choose to incorporate principles of conflict resolution in classroom management.
Since peer mediation typically requires participation, support, and resources
beyond those of a single classroom, entire schools and sometimes whole
districts may be involved. Such comprehensive efforts may entail substantial
parent education and staff development and are very dependent on strong
administrative leadership (Lieber & Rogers, 1994; National Association
for Mediation in Education [NAME], 1994).
This Digest will discuss several approaches, both inservice and preservice,
to preparing teachers to play a role in conflict resolution within schools
and will identify problematic issues related to preparation.
CONFLICT RESOLUTION IN TEACHER EDUCATION
The study of conflict and its resolution encompasses many fields. Accordingly,
teaching, research, and writing occurs in many academic departments. Course
materials typically draw from social psychology, education, law, sociology,
communication, and anthropology, as represented in foundation texts (Deutsch,
1973; Fisher & Ury, 1981; Axelrod, 1984; Hocker & Wilmot, 1991;
Conflict resolution in schools has grown rapidly. The National Association
for Mediation in Education (NAME) estimates that in 1984, the year of its
founding, there were approximately 50 school-based conflict resolution
programs. Eleven years later NAME estimates the number of programs at well
over 5,000. One of those early programs was the Responding to Conflict
Creatively Program (RCCP) sponsored by Educators for Social Responsibility,
which now operates in 300 schools nationwide. Other programs have expanded
similarly. The New Mexico Center for Dispute Resolution has carried out
a statewide school mediation program for 10 years and currently involves
over 30,000 students. Through the Community Board Program, three-fourths
of San Francisco's schools have peer conflict managers (National Institute
for Dispute Resolution [NIDR], 1994; Inger, 1991).
Educators primarily learn about conflict resolution on their own or
through staff development programs. The issue of whether teachers can conduct
peer mediation and other conflict resolution programs without training
is a central question. While mediation and peaceable school curricula are
available to individual teachers, the authors encourage substantial training
(Kreidler, 1984; Bodine et al., 1994; Schmidt, 1994). NAME provides a curriculum
and program to train those interested in conducting staff development in
schools (Townley & Lee, 1993). Training is viewed as necessary due
to the difficulty in changing adult attitudes and behavior. Without sufficient
training to address teachers' own behavior, there is the danger that the
adults' words will not match their actions. Since modeling is essential,
training is viewed as essential (Bodine et al., 1994; Lieber & Rogers,
1994; Miller, 1994).
Who conducts training for teachers? In Massachusetts one source is the
Office of the Attorney General. Some states, such as Ohio, sponsor dispute
resolution centers or commissions. University faculty based in special
programs or in schools of law, education, or public justice provide training.
In many states private nonprofit organizations work specifically on peace
or conflict resolution in schools (NIDR, 1994).
Other issues arising in the preparation of inservice teachers echo problems
encountered in any change effort. They include the importance of the principal's
leadership; the need for targeted follow-up support to teachers; the fit
(or lack of it) between program demands and resources; and the need for
systemic, school-wide change versus individual classroom change (DeJong,
1994; Lieber & Rogers, 1994).
Preservice and Graduate Preparation
The inclusion of conflict resolution within preservice and graduate
education programs has grown more slowly but curricula have found their
way into schools and departments of education in a variety of ways. The
subject has been introduced within the frameworks of existing courses and
as separate courses. Coursework combined with action research is viewed
as particularly effective (Girard & Koch, 1995; Lieber & Rogers,
1994; Hughes, 1994).
NAME and NIDR initiated the Conflict Resolution in Teacher Education
Project in 1993. That project brought together experts in prejudice reduction,
multiculturalism, conflict resolution, and teacher education, including
representatives from professional associations and specialties of health,
counseling, and administration. The project's curriculum, Conflict Resolution
in the Schools (Girard & Koch, 1996), is the first comprehensive set
of materials directed at the incorporation of conflict resolution in the
professional preparation of educators. It includes background material
and instructional modules on the nature of conflict, foundation skills,
conflict resolution processes, rationales for conflict resolution in schools,
and application options for schools and teacher education. Eleven colleges
and universities participated in a pilot training based on this curriculum
and then implemented conflict resolution at their home sites.
Limited evaluation studies show positive trends related to aggression,
student self-image and skills, and overall school climate (Lam, 1989; Metis,
1990). However, the full benefits of conflict resolution in schools may
depend on the inclusion of this subject in the preservice curriculum; more
comprehensive training; support of teachers, administrators, and parents
at sites; and expansion from individual to school- and district-wide programs.
Two resources for additional information are:
* National Association for Mediation in Education, 205 Hampshire House,
Box 33635, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003-3635. (413) 545-2462.
* National Institute for Dispute Resolution, 1726 M Street, N.W., Suite
500, Washington, DC 20036. (202) 466-4764.
References identified with an EJ or ED number have been abstracted and
are in the ERIC database. Journal articles (EJ) should be available at
most research libraries; most documents (ED) are available in microfiche
collections at more than 900 locations. Documents can also be ordered through
the ERIC Document Reproduction Service: (800) 443-ERIC.
Axelrod, R. M. (1984). The evolution of cooperation. New York: Basic
Bettmann, E. H., & Moore, P. (1994). Conflict resolution programs
and social justice. Education and Urban Society, 27(1), 11-21.
Bodine, R., Crawford, D., & Schrumpf, F. (1994). Creating the peaceable
school: A comprehensive program for teaching conflict resolution. Champaign,
IL: Research Press.
DeJong, W. (1994, Spring). School-based violence prevention: From the
peaceable school to the peaceable neighborhood. NIDR Forum, 25, 8-18.
Deutsch, M. (1973). The resolution of conflict: Constructive and destructive
processes. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Duryea, M. L. (1992). Conflict and culture: A literature review and
bibliography. Victoria, Canada: University of Victoria Institute for Dispute
Fisher, R., & Ury, W. (1981). Getting to yes: Negotiating agreement
without giving in. New York: Houghton Mifflin.
Girard, K., & Koch, S. (1996). Conflict resolution in the schools:
A manual for educators. San Francisco: Josey-Bass, Inc.
Hocker, J., & Wilmot, W. (1991). Interpersonal conflict. Third edition.
Dubuque, IA: W. C. Brown.
Hughes, H. W. (1994, February). From fistfights to gunfights: Preparing
teachers and administrators to cope with violence in school. Paper presented
at the annual meeting of the American Association of Colleges for Teacher
Education, Chicago, IL. ED 366 584.
Inger, M. (1991). Conflict resolution programs in schools. ERIC digest
no.74. New York: ERIC Clearinghouse on Urban Education. ED 338 791.
Kreidler, W. J. (1984). Creative conflict resolution: More than 200
activities for keeping peace in the classroom-K-6. Glenview, IL: Scott,
Lam, J. A. (1989). The impact of conflict resolution programs on schools:
A review and synthesis of the evidence. Second edition. Amherst, MA: National
Association for Mediation in Education. ED 358 535.
Lieber, C., & Rogers, J. (1994). Challenging beliefs and bureaucracies
in an urban school system. Education and Urban Society, 27(1), 45-70.
Metis Associates, Inc. (1990). The resolving conflict creatively program:
1988-1989. Summary of significant findings. New York: Author. ED 348 422.
Miller, E. (1994, May/June). Peer mediation catches on, but some adults
don't. Harvard Education Letter, p.8.
National Association for Mediation in Education [NAME]. (1994). Initiating
conflict resolution in schools: Teaching skills for effective, non-violent
problem solving. Amherst, MA: Author.
National Institute for Dispute Resolution [NIDR]. (1994). Survey of
schools dispute resolution programs across the country. NIDR News, 1(7),
Schmidt, F. (1994). Mediation: Getting to winwin! Miami: Peace Education
Townley, A., & Lee, M. (1993). Training for trainers: Staff development
in conflict resolution skills. Amherst, MA: National Association for Mediation