Creating and Maintaining a Diverse Faculty. ERIC
by Colby, Anita - Foote, Elizabeth
Today's community colleges are under pressure from internal and external
forces to recruit and retain minority faculty members. Some commentators
have alleged that minority students, especially those attending colleges
where they make up a significant part of the student body, are alienated
by facing an all-white faculty. The demand for minority faculty, particularly
in the sciences and technical fields, is great throughout higher education,
making it difficult for some community colleges to retain faculty even
after they have been recruited. National studies indicate that fewer minorities
are choosing education as a career path during their undergraduate years,
indicating that the pool of minority candidates may remain small for some
time (Robertson and Frier, 1994).
This digest focuses on the status of minority faculty in community colleges,
and strategies that have been used successfully to recruit and retain them.
STATUS OF MINORITY FACULTY
According to recent studies (Carter, 1994), approximately 90% of the
total faculty at the nation's two- and four-year, public and private colleges
are white. The highest percentage of faculty of color are employed at public
four-year institutions (12.6%), a figure influenced by the inclusion of
historically black colleges. The lowest percentage are employed at private
two-year colleges (2.6%). In studies conducted between 1988 and 1992, 3-5.1%
of the faculty at two-year colleges were African American, 1-1.4% were
American Indian, 2-2.2% were Asian American, 1.7% were Mexican American,
0.2-0.3% were Puerto Rican American. In comparison with all two-year college
faculty, faculty of color are somewhat less likely to have a master's degree,
more likely to have tenure, and very close to the national median for salary.
Opp and Smith's (1994) study of the recruitment and retention of minority
faculty highlighted a number of institutional factors that served as predictors
of whether a college had high percentage of under-represented minorities
on the faculty. Predictors influencing both recruitment and retention included
having a African American, Mexican American or American Indian vice-president
of academic affairs; the amount of contact that vice-presidents of academic
affairs had with minority students and faculty; and having minorities serving
on college boards of trustees.
STRATEGIES FOR RECRUITING FACULTY OF COLOR
Owens, Reis, and Hall (1994) suggest a variety of ways in which community
colleges can be more effective in their efforts to recruit minority faculty.
Their recommendations include the following:
-Keeping an open mind in evaluating the credentials of minority candidates,
and recognizing the value of non-academic experiences.
-Including minority professionals from the service area on search committees.
-Utilizing minority media in recruitment campaigns, especially when
language is an important factor.
-Making use of partnerships with business and industry to seek out potential
Owens, Reis, and Hall indicate that the first step in recruiting minority
faculty is ensuring a commitment to institutional diversity from the highest
levels of college administration.
Nicholas and Oliver (1995) add to this list the following strategies:
-Initiating programs that aggressively seek well-qualified minority
candidates and women through wide varieties of networks and personal contacts.
-Including minority members on interview committees.
-Keeping candidate pools open until minority and female candidates with
appropriate credentials are found.
-Maintaining on-going dialogues and possibly faculty exchanges with
historically black colleges.
-Implementing long-range programs that encourage minority and women
students from elementary school through graduate programs.
-Diversifying administration, staff, and student bodies as well as faculties.
STRATEGIES FOR RETAINING FACULTY OF COLOR
Given the effort involved in recruiting minority faculty, it is essential
to devote resources to their retention. Owens, Reis, and Hall (1994) list
the following tactics:
-Begin with a thorough orientation and provide assistance with college
and campus resources, housing, shopping, and community services.
-To promote collegiality, schedule activities that require all faculty
to interact such as diversity training and staff development programs.
-Incorporate minority faculty into the decision making process of the
college, mainstream the teaching assignments, and include them in all facets
of campus life and activities.
However, Robertson and Frier (1994) remind colleges not to make them
the "minority representative" on every committee.
The Maricopa Community Colleges utilized many of these strategies in
their efforts to create applicant pools in which minorities and women are
well represented (de los Santos, 1994). They visited and did direct mailings
to colleges with large minority populations, mailed packets to individual
minority graduate students, and sent faculty representatives to state and
district minority organizations. These efforts resulted in an increase
in full-time minority faculty, from 127 professors in 1987 (16.2 percent
of the total) to 176 professors in 1992 (19.2 percent). They have also
increased the number of minority managers (deans, directors, and coordinators)
from 66 in 1987 (19.6 percent) to 91 in 1992 (23.2 percent).
California Community Colleges are also committed to affirmative action
(Knoell, 1994). The key components of their plan are leadership from the
top, rewards and incentives to districts and individuals who contribute
to diverse staffing, required filing of affirmative action plans, an annual
Affirmative Action Job Fair, and accountability to the state legislature.
In 1992-93, they exceeded their goal of hiring 30 percent of their faculty
from underrepresented ethnic and racial groups by 1.2 percent. They continue
to work towards their long-term goal of a systemwide full-time workforce
that reflects the demographic composition of the state by the year 2005.
Community colleges are changing in the constituencies they serve. A
diverse faculty provides an effective and visible support system for the
increasingly diverse student population. Minority faculty act as role models,
advisors, and advocates for minority students while they expose majority
students to new ideas. They are essential to a multicultural campus.
This digest was drawn from Creating and Maintaining a Diverse Faculty,
New Directions for Community Colleges, Number 87, edited by William B.
Harvey and James Valadez; published in September, 1994. The cited articles
include: "The Status of Faculty in Community Colleges: What Do We Know,"
by Deborah J. Carter; "Minority Faculty Recruitment and Retention Strategies:
The Maricopa Experience," by Alfredo G. de los Santos; "California Community
College Faculty from Historically Underrepresented Racial and Ethnic Groups,"
by Dorothy M. Knoell; "Achieving Diversity Among Community College Faculty,"
by Freddie W. Nicholas, Sr. and Arnold R. Oliver; "Effective Strategies
for Enhancing Minority Faculty Recruitment and Retention," by Ronald D.
Opp and Albert Smith; "Bridging the Gap: Recruitment and Retention of Minority
Faculty Members," by Jerry Sue Owens, Frank W. Reis, and Kathryn M. Hall;
"Recruitment and Retention of Minority Faculty," by Piedad F. Robertson
and Ted Frier.