by Balas, Andrea K. A children's rhyme linked the domains of the three Rsreading, 'riting and 'rithmeticlong before the whole language philosophy or integrated curriculum became focal points for educators. Letters, symbols, and numbers are the primary methods of communication in the world. This includes the universal sharing of ideas, concepts, data, and information. This common role in society creates a natural connection for the integration of reading and mathematics in the school curriculum. Success in reading and mathematics is based on process skills that incorporate the integration of contextual information and with prior knowledge to produce meaning. The development of the skills involved in these domains could be considered the four Cs: construction, collaboration, context, and communication. Knowledge is actively constructed in each of these areas. In reading, letters form words that symbolize objects, attributes or action. In mathematics, numbers symbolize amounts, patterns or relationships. These words and numerical expressions create a basis for additional focus or information processing. This knowledge can be constructed and enhanced through collaboration with others in the classroom or workplace. Knowledge is communicated with others to share, compare and assess information. WHICH STRATEGIES OF LEARNING LANGUAGE CAN BE APPLIED TO THE LEARNING OF MATHEMATICS Jennie BickmoreBrand (BickmoreBrand, 1993) identifies seven language learning strategies that can be applied to enhance the learning of mathematics. They include: *Creating a meaningful and relevant context for the knowledge, skills and values of mathematics. *Realizing the starting point of interest in mathematics is the knowledge base of the student. *Providing opportunities for the learner to see the skills, processes and values of mathematics by the teacher's modeling. *Continuing to build on the knowledge base and challenging the studentsscaffolding. *Facilitating the metacognition of the student by helping the student identify the learning processes and how he or she learns. *Assisting the learner to accept the responsibility for the construction of knowledge. *Building a community of learners in a riskfree learning environment. These strands should be interwoven into the classroom environment to aid in the content, methodology, and assessment in mathematics. BickmoreBrand suggests that these steps will create a positive association with mathematics and mathematical relevancy in society. WHAT DOES THE NATIONAL COUNCIL OF TEACHERS OFMATHEMATICS SAY ABOUT THE INTERDISCIPLINARY APPROACH OF TEACHING MATHEMATICS WITH READING? The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM, 1989) acknowledged the integration between the domains of mathematics and reading with the inclusion of Standard 2 "Mathematics as Communication" in the "Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics." The emphasis for the grade groupings follows. Grades K4: *Mathematics can be thought of as a language. *Reading children's literature about mathematics, and eventually text material, needs more emphasis in the K4 curriculum. *Children can meaningfully learn mathematics; teachers can help the process by providing opportunities for them to communicate and to "talk math" with their friends. *Use connections to construct knowledge, learn alternative ways to think about ideas, clarify thinking, and communicate about problems. Grades 58: *Use the skills of reading, listening, and viewing to interpret and evaluate mathematical ideas. Grades 910: *Use of skills provides opportunities for interpretation of data and statistics regarding social issues. In this manner, mathematics helps students develop an understanding of the events in society. The NCTM also acknowledges this linkage in its other publications, including the 1995 Yearbook, "Connecting Mathematics across the Curriculum," and the1996 Yearbook, "Communication in Mathematics K12 and Beyond." The 1995 yearbook focuses on the connections of mathematics in all areas and all levels of the school curriculum. It specifically addresses the topic for elementary school curriculum in a chapter by David J. Whitin, "Connecting Literature and Mathematics" who suggests that children's literature can help students meaningfully connect their world to the world of mathematical ideas. The 1996 Yearbook focuses on building a discourse community of meaningful mathematical communication within classrooms and beyond. One of the sections for such a changing paradigm is reading. Topics included for discussion are the use of trade books, metaphorical thinking, reading to construct meaning, and communicating mathematics through literature. The NCTM is promoting collaboration of reading and mathematics. WHAT IS THE IMPACT OF READING ON MATHEMATICAL PROCESS
Reading provides both context and motivation for the mathematics students. Reading from a text book, trade book, or newspaper article can provide the students with a shared basis for receiving and sharing information. Reading can supply a common setting, environment, and details for application of students' mathematical skills. Reading provides an interesting context that students can explore. This exploration can occur either in a group with many students or with one student. In general, the integration of math and reading creates a relevant context for the formal and abstract mathematical processes. The use of either fiction or nonfiction material can create the context for discussion and set the stage for mathematical skills. The specific areas may include: *Posing questions in mathematics. *Sequencing events in a story. *Questioning and seeking additional information students would like to know about a topic. *Developing recording skills. *Comparing and contrasting. For example, a Venn Diagram can be used to compare and contrast different versions of the same story. *Constructing charts and graphs to illustrate or determine the impact of details. *Counting through onetoone correspondence. *Predicting and hypothesizing. For example, examining stories for patterns like this one: introduction, development of details and theme, climax, and conclusion. *Validating or persuading, using data or details to determine and support a particular position. *Conferring with others to generate new knowledge or to confirm a position on a topic. WHAT IS MATHEMATICAL LITERACY? With support for the connections between the strategies, processes, and skills within the domains of reading and mathematics, can an argument be made for mathematical literacy? David Whitin, Heidi Mills and Timothy O'Keefe present an argument for such a concept in "Living and Learning Mathematics, Stories and Strategies for Supporting Mathematical Literacy." The authors maintain that students become mathematically literate the same way they become literate in reading. Mathematics is more than numbers just as reading is more that letters. Literacy involves placing numbers into meaningful context in daily living. It is demonstrated by students putting numbers to good use within the structure of their lives, their stories and their literature. Students work together, observing and investigating uses of numbers, asking questions, and planning strategies, to find the answers. These are the kinds of activities that can create and support the environment for mathematical literacy. REFERENCES Braddon, K. L., Hall, N. J., & Taylor, D. (1993). "Math through Children's Literature: making the standards come alive." Englewood, CO: Teachers Ideas Press. Carr, M. (Ed.). (1995). "Motivation in Mathematics." Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press, Inc. National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. (1989). "Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics." Reston, VA: Author. National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. (1995). "Connecting mathematics across the curriculum (1995 Yearbook)." Reston, VA: Author. National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. (1996). "Communications in mathematics k12 and beyond (1996 Yearbook)." Reston, VA: Author. Southwest Educational Development Laboratory. (1993). "Integrating Mathematics, Science and Language: an instructional program (Volume 1)." Austin, TX: Author. Stephens, M., Waywood, A., Clark, D. & Izard, J (Eds.). (1993). "Communicating Mathematics: perspectives from the classroom and current research." Victoria, AU: The Australian Council for Educational Research Ltd. Whitin, D. J., Mills, H. & O'Keefe, T. (1990). "Living and Learning
Mathematics: stories and strategies for supporting mathematical literacy."
Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Please note that this site is privately owned and is in no way related to any Federal agency or ERIC unit. Further, this site is using a privately owned and located server. This is NOT a government sponsored or government sanctioned site. ERIC is a Service Mark of the U.S. Government. This site exists to provide the text of the public domain ERIC Documents previously produced by ERIC. No new content will ever appear here that would in any way challenge the ERIC Service Mark of the U.S. Government.