How could handchipped stones, ancient ruins, old broken dishes, and
antiquated garbage help students learn about the world and themselves?
Within archaeology, these seemingly irrelevant items can enlighten students
about the world around them through science, culture, and history. By using
archaeology in the classroom, educators can lead students on learning adventures
while engaging them in thinking about life in the past and who we are as
humans today. This Digest discusses (1) the discipline of archaeology,
(2) archaeology in the classroom, and (3) resources for teaching archaeology.
THE DISCIPLINE OF ARCHAEOLOGY.
Archaeology is one of four subfields of anthropology; the others are
cultural anthropology, linguistics, and physical anthropology.
Archaeology is the scientific study of past human cultures through their
physical remains. By studying the remains of objects people created in
the past, archaeologists can understand how those people lived and interacted
with each other. Prehistoric archaeologists study cultures without written
histories. Historical archaeologists study cultures with written records,
and usually focus on the diffusion of those cultures throughout the world.
The archaeological process begins well before an archaeologist moves
the first shovel of dirt. Archaeologists first develop questions about
past life that they want to answer. They base these questions in the social
sciences and seek answers through scientific methods.
After determining their questions, archaeologists seek data to answer
them. Archaeologists find these data through either excavations in the
field or collections of already excavated materials. Archaeologists do
not dig a site simply because it is there. If the site will not answer
their questions, archaeologists try to preserve the site for future generations
to excavate. Even when a site will answer their questions, archaeologists
do not begin digging without a carefully constructed plan.
It is the job of archaeologists to record as much information as they
can about the sites they study. To be certain they record the information
properly, archaeologists must choose the appropriate methods to study sites
based on the types of sites and the environments of their locations. Only
when the appropriate excavation and documentation methods have been determined
will archaeologists begin a study.
After examining their data from previous collections or field projects,
archaeologists usually write the answers to their questions and other findings
in technical reports. Archaeologists also may wish to share their findings
with the public by producing material for the popular media, creating exhibits,
or presenting public lectures.
Archaeology is a very diverse field, which allows it to draw upon experts
and data from different fields. This diversity also makes archaeology ideal
for the classroom because educators can integrate it with many subjects
in the school curriculum.
USING ARCHAEOLOGY IN THE CLASSROOM.
Archaeology can provide links with both the distant and the not-so-distant
past. Archaeology also offers the opportunity to explore the development
of and variation among modern human societies. By exploring these variations
students can better appreciate the diversity of human life (Formal Education
Subcommittee, Public Education Committee 1995, 2).
Archaeology, with its multidisciplinary approach, can teach students
a wide range of topics:
* Students can learn scientific method -- developing hypotheses, testing,
recording, and theory building -- while learning about the past.
* Laying out and mapping archaeological sites teaches students math,
geometry, mapmaking and reading skills, and geography.
* By working in teams like many archaeologists, students learn communication
and interpersonal skills.
* Educators can address various historic topics, explore the ways in
which humans record history (in writing, orally, and archaeologically),
and illustrate how together these different forms of recorded history offer
a clearer view of the past.
* Students can learn biology by analyzing plant and animal remains.
* When studying artifacts, students can use their imaginations to learn
how the artifacts functioned, and what meanings their creators assigned
* Archaeological activities can provide many hands-on experiences, allowing
students to learn while participating.
* Students can learn critical thinking skills while trying to piece
together the puzzle of the past and understand how people have lived.
RESOURCES FOR TEACHING ARCHAEOLOGY.
Many resources are available for educators to integrate archaeology
into their lessons. These resources usually can be found through archaeological
societies and federal and state agencies. Many of these organizations maintain
lists of books, lesson and activity plans, videotapes, posters, and other
resources available for educators.
Some of these organizations include:
* The Society for American Archaeology, 900 Second Street NE, #12, Washington,
D.C. 20002; (202) 789-8200; <www.saa.org>
* The Society for Historical Archaeology, P.O. Box 30446, Tucson, AZ
85751; (520) 886-8006; <www.sha.org>
* Archaeological Institute of America, 658 Beacon Street, Boston, MA
02215; (617) 353-9361; <www.archaeological.org>
* Archaeology and Ethnography Program (2275), National Park Service,
1849 C Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20240; (202) 343-4101; <www.cr.nps.gov/toolsfor.html>
* The Anasazi Heritage Center, Bureau of Land Management, 27501 Highway
184, Dolores, CO 81323; (970) 882-4811; <www.co.blm.gov:80/ahc/projarc.htm>
* National Register of Historic Places, "Teaching With Historic Places,"
The Society for American Archaeology (SAA) produces "Archaeology in
the Classroom," which contains guidelines for evaluating archaeology education
materials. SAA's Public Education Committee also produces publications
for teaching archaeology. "Archaeology and Public Education" is a quarterly
Web-based newsletter in which educators can find information on programs,
lesson plans, and other resources. The Public Education Committee also
is initiating a monograph series geared for educators. The monographs will
contain information on archaeological topics and information on how to
incorporate those topics into K-12 classrooms.
Educators can find regional and local resources through local archaeological
societies and archaeologists working within their state and local governments.
Several states organize archaeology week celebrations. During these events
educators can find many archaeological programs and resources geared toward
both the general public and educators. For more information on these events,
individuals can contact their state historic preservation office or state
The Society for American Archaeology also supports a network of State
and Provincial Archaeology Education Coordinators. These coordinators from
throughout North America can provide information on archaeological programs
and activities in their areas. The Society for American Archaeology lists
these coordinators on its Web site at <www.saa.org/Organization/Committees/n-penet.html>.
By using local resources and examples, educators can place their local
history and culture into the larger world context.
Educators also can take advantage of programs that allow them to participate
in ongoing archaeological projects. Organizations such as the Center for
American Archaeology, P.O. Box 366, Kampsville, IL 62053, (618) 653-4316,
<www.caa-archaeology.org> and Crow Canyon Archaeological Center, 23390
County Road K, Cortez, CO 81321, (800) 422-8975, <crowcanyon.com> provide
programs that allow educators to learn firsthand about archaeology through
participation. They also offer courses to help educators synthesize what
they learn in the field into their teaching.
REFERENCES and ERIC RESOURCES.
The following list of resources includes references used to prepare
this Digest. The items followed by an ED number are available in microfiche
and/or paper copies from the ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS).
For information about prices, contact EDRS, 7420 Fullerton Road, Suite
110, Springfield, Virginia 22153-2852; telephone numbers are (703) 440-1400
and (800) 443-3742. Entries followed by an EJ number, annotated monthly
in CURRENT INDEX TO JOURNALS IN EDUCATION (CIJE), are not available through
EDRS. However, they can be located in the journal section of most larger
libraries by using the bibliographic information provided, requested through
Interlibrary Loan, or ordered from commercial reprint services.
Formal Education Subcommittee, Public Education Committee. ARCHAEOLOGY
IN THE CLASSROOM: GUIDELINES FOR THE EVALUATION OF ARCHAEOLOGY EDUCATION
MATERIALS. Washington, DC: Society for American Archaeology, 1995.
Formal Education Subcommittee, Workbook Task-Force. TEACHING ARCHAEOLOGY,
A SAMPLER FOR GRADES THREE TO TWELVE. Washington, DC: Society for American
O'Brien, Wendy, and Tracey Cullen, Eds. ARCHAEOLOGY IN THE CLASSROOM.
Boston, MA: Archaeological Institute of America, 1996. ED 404 276.
Smith, K. C. "Pathway to the Past: Archaeology Education in Precollegiate
Classrooms." SOCIAL STUDIES 89 (May-June 1998): 12-17. EJ 566 896.
Stuart, George, and Francis P. McManamon. ARCHAEOLOGY AND YOU. Washington,
DC: Society for American Archaeology, 1996.
Wolf, Dennie Palmer, Dana Balick, and Julie Craron. DIGGING DEEP: TEACHING
SOCIAL STUDIES THROUGH THE STUDY OF ARCHAEOLOGY. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann,
1997. ED 415 110.
Yell, Michael M. "The Time Before History: Thinking Like an Archaeologist."
SOCIAL EDUCATION 62 (January 1998): 27-31. EJ 565 805.