ERIC Identifier: ED446647 Publication Date: 2000-00-00
Author: Cavell, Lori J. Source: ERIC Clearinghouse on
Higher Education Washington DC.
Graduate Student Unionization in Higher Education. ERIC Digest.
The debate over whether graduate student unions have a place within higher
education is heating up on campuses. The suitability of collective bargaining
for graduate students is the contested issue. Union representatives are on one
side of the negotiation table arguing that graduate assistants are employees and
deserve collective bargaining rights like other employee groups. Most faculty
and administrators are on the other side, asserting that graduate assistants are
primarily students whose responsibilities need not be governed by collective
GRADUATE STUDENTS QUEST FOR UNIONIZATION
entered the unionization movement in 1969 when students at the University of
Wisconsin-Madison campus gained union status. Nevertheless, the rally for
graduate students to unionize did not spread until the late 1980s. Within the
last eight years, large numbers of graduate assistants (GAs) have organized and
struck for recognition. What caused this rise in activity? The main reasons are
1. There has been a significant increase in the use of teaching assistants at
colleges and universities. Since 1975, the number of faculty members who are
also graduate students rose 35 percent (AAUP, 1995). This growth is largely a
result of cost reduction efforts in higher education institutions. At large
research institutions, for example, graduate students are increasingly seen as a
source of cheap labor and are relied upon as part-time teaching assistants or as
a main source of undergraduate instructors (Nelson, 1995). As a consequence, the
nature of the graduate students' role has changed to more closely resemble that
of the faculty, while their compensation has remained far below that of a
professor (Aronowitz, 1998).
2. The use of graduate students as instructors has further tightened the
already competitive academic job market. Graduate assistants and part-time
faculty fear that there will not be space for them in the permanent, full-time,
tenured faculty positions of academia. Many look to unionization as a means to
securing their current positions and as a way to force universities to
acknowledge their dilemma (Aronowitz, 1998; Barba, 1994).
GA unionization advocates assert that "until we can reverse the chronic
disinvestment in higher education and restore tenured positions as the norm, it
is likely that universities will increase their exploitation of cheap labor as
student enrollments expand over the next decade" (AAUP, 1995). In the long run,
scholars predict that use of graduate students and part-time faculty will result
in fewer full-time jobs available to would-be professors, and a decrease in the
quality of education delivered (Chase, 2000; Vaughn, 1998; AAUP, 1995, Joseph
& Curtiss, 1997; and, Sharnoff, 1993).
THE OTHER SIDE OF THE DEBATE
According to the opponents
(mainly university faculty and administrations) of GA unionization, graduate
students are not employees and are not entitled to unionization or benefits.
Students work as part of their training or financial aid packages, and this
experience supplements their education. GA union adversaries insist that
graduate student unionization will do more harm than good, and voice many
University administrators fear that graduate student unions will negatively
affect graduate student and university relations, cause strikes and
interruptions in education, and reduce the role that non-union members have in
the formation and delivery of education. They also have economic concerns.
Administrators fear that increases in salary and fringe benefits won by graduate
student unions could lead to increased student tuition. Other worries are that
it would interfere with the free exchange of ideas, causing economic
considerations to replace academic ones (Barba, 1994). (See Vaughn, 1998, for a
response to these concerns).
Faculty share the concerns of the administrators. This comes as a surprise to
those who watched the faculty unionization movements of the 1970s. Sometimes the
very professors that once fought for their own unions now oppose graduate
assistant unionization. One scholar speculates that faculty members may question
motives for graduate student unions, predict a loss of comradeship and
collegiality, and fear the usurpation of faculty responsibilities as well as
increased rivalry (Sharnoff, 1993). It is difficult to assess the validity or
prevalence of such attitudes.
WHERE IS ALL THE ACTION?
The National Labor Relations Board
(NLRB) and state labor relations boards are charged with the task of deciding
whether or not graduate students can be considered employees. Public and private
organizations have been viewed differently by the NLRB (See Streitz et al,
1997). Since graduate student employment is governed by state labor laws, each
state's graduate student groups must fight the battle in their own state (Joseph & Curtiss, 1997). As a result, the type and course of the battle varies.
Graduate student movements at both public and private institutions have been
active. Like faculty unionization efforts, GA organizations have been enhanced
by partnerships with the American Federation of Teachers (AFT), the American
Association of University Professors (AAUP), the National Education Association
(NEA), and in some cases the United Auto Workers (UAW). The following are key
achievements in the partnerships' struggles for graduate student unions across
the United States:
1. The first graduate assistants' union was formed in 1969 at the University
of Wisconsin- Madison campus (Barba 1994). (For a list of all recognized unions
and their organized labor affiliations see Julius, April 1999).
2. In 1992, after a series of failed attempts to negotiate a contract at
University of California at Berkeley, the Graduate Student Employees struck for
recognition (Barba 1994).
3. In 1993, the State University of New York (SUNY) Graduate Student Employee
Union was awarded its first contract with the State of New York (Barba 1994).
4. In 1995, Yale's Graduate Employee Student Organization (GESO) withheld
student grades in order to force recognition of their union. In 1997, The NLRB
filed charges against Yale for illegal retaliation against graduate students
attempting to unionize (Joseph and Curtiss, 1997). However, the university still
does not recognize GESO (Aronowitz, 1998).
5. In April, 2000, graduate students who teach, grade papers and conduct
research at New York University (NYU), a private university, were granted the
legal right to form a union by the NLRB. This ruling could open the door for
other private institutions (Leatherman, 2000).
6. During litigation over graduate students' efforts to organize at NYU, the
NLRB Regional Director ruled that graduate students are employees. NYU appealed
that ruling to the NLRB in Washington. On October 31, 2000, the NLRB affirmed
the Regional Director's finding.
7. In the year 2000, there are unionization recognition battles in Illinois,
Michigan, Connecticut, California and other states.
WHAT IMPACT WILL GRADUATE STUDENT UNIONS HAVE?
is much speculation on both sides of the debate, to date few studies of the
effects of graduate student unions have been conducted.
In support of graduate student unions, Aronowitz observed that universities
without graduate assistant unions and with heavy use of part-time faculty and
graduate assistants experienced stagnation in full-time faculty salaries
(Aronowitz, 1998). Perhaps GA unions will reduce this effect. Another study
found that graduate student unions have not damaged professor-graduate student
relations (Hewitt, 1999). The study surveyed faculty members at five
universities that have had graduate student unions for at least four years.
Approximately 90 percent of the respondents claimed that mentoring
relationships, the free exchange of ideas, and the faculty advisory role had not
suffered because of the unions.
Yet, unionization is not without negative consequences for union members as
evidenced by the University of Massachusetts at Amherst and the University of
California Berkeley cases. University of Massachusetts graduate students'
stipends remained static for two years while contract negotiations over other
issues were conducted (See
http://www.yale.edu/opa/gradschool/faq.html#section4). At UC Berkeley, graduate
assistants have not received an increase in seven years also due to lengthy
contract negotiations (See
http://www.yale.edu/opa/gradschool/faq.html#section4). The lessons these cases
offer should be heeded, so as to avoid replication of such situations.
GUIDELINES TO ADDRESS THE FUTURE OF GRADUATE STUDENT
The future of graduate student unionization is uncertain. At
the present, the path appears to be widening at public and private (though at a
slower rate) higher education institutions. As this trend continues, graduate
students interested in unionizing, state agency officials charged with
negotiating contracts, and administrators of universities involved in the
unionization debate, search for guidance. Until more research is available,
these groups would be wise to pursue two avenues: 1) colleagues who have already
tackled these issues, and 2) the literature on existing graduate student union
contracts and the related struggles.
Groups interested in unionizing can look to union activists at organized
schools, the Directory of Graduate Student Employee Bargaining Agents and
Organizations (Lanzerotti et al, 1995) for histories and contract summaries of
GA unions, the National Association of Graduate-Professional Students (NAGPS)
[http://www.nagps.org/] for information on graduate and professional student
groups at all stages of development, and the Coalition of Graduate Employee
Unions (CGEU) [http://www.CGEU.org/] for advice.
Good resources for administrators and faculty are the following:
1. A Chronicle of Higher Education Handbook entitled "Faculty Collective
Bargaining" (1976) delineates a twelve-step process, beginning with organizing
and concluding with the administration of a contract, which can be helpful to
administrators, faculty and graduate students seeking to understand the
collective bargaining process.
2. Barba's 1994 article "The Unionization Movement" examines the contracts at
the Universities of Florida, Michigan, Oregon, and Wisconsin, as well as
Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey. Barba's analysis of these
collective bargaining agreements reveals a number of similarities which may be
incorporated as the foundation of future contract negotiations (Barba, 1994).
3. Cary Nelson's (1995) article frames the current strife over the graduate
student as apprentice or employee. Nelson outlines a twelve-step program to help
faculty, graduate students and administrators address the key issues. Solutions
are also offered.
These resources, publications, and precedents can guide the higher education
community as graduate student unionization efforts hit campuses everywhere.
Unquestionably, the graduate employee unionization issue and the ensuing
struggles should be watched closely. The quality of teaching and employment
within higher education is at stake.
American Association of University Professors
(AAUP). (1995). Graduate students. Statement on Graduate Students. AAUP Policy
Documents and Reports, 1995 Edition. [On-line statement] Available:
Annunziato, Frank R. (1994, Apr/May). Graduate assistants and unionization.
Newsletter: National Center for The Study of Collective Bargaining in Higher
Education and the Professions. 22, 2. 1 - 4.
Aronowitz, S. (1998, Nov/Dec). Are unions good? Academe. 12 - 17.
Barba, W. (1994, November). The unionization movement: An analysis of
graduate student employee union contracts. Business Officer. pp. 35 - 43.
Chase, B. (2000, March 20). Interesting times demand a new unionism. Speech
given by NEA president to Baruch College, School of Public Affairs National
Center for the Study of Collective Bargaining in Higher Education and the
Professions. New York. [On-line transcription] Available:
Faculty Collective Bargaining. (1976). A Chronicle of Higher Education
Handbook. (2nd Ed.). Washington, DC: Editorial Projects for Education.
Hewitt, G. (1999). Graduate student unionization: A description of faculty
attitudes and beliefs, Annual Forum of the Association for Institutional
Research. Quoted in Rabban, D. and Euben, D. UNITED STATES OF AMERICA BEFORE THE
NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD NEW YORK UNIVERSITY, Employer: CASE No.
2-RC-22082 and INTERNATIONAL UNION, UNITED AUTOMOBILE, AEROSPACE AND
AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENT WORKERS OF AMERICA (UAW), AFL-CIO, Petitioner. [On-line]
Joseph, T. & Curtiss, J. (1997, February 21). Why professors should
support graduate-student unions. The Chronicle of Higher Education. [On-line
Serial] Available: [www.chronicle.com].
Julius, D. (1999, April ). The current status of graduate student unions: An
employer's perspective. Collective Bargaining and Accountability in Higher
Education: A Report Card. National Center for the Study of Collective Bargaining
in Higher Education and the Professions. New York: Baruch College, The City
University of New York.
Lanzerotti, R., Hayes, M., & Curtiss, J. (1995). Directory of graduate
student employee bargaining agents and organizations. New York: The National
Center for the Study of Collective Bargaining in Higher Education and the
Leatherman, C. (2000, April 14) NLRB ruling may demolish the barriers to T.A.
unions at private universities. The Chronicle of Higher Education.
Nelson, Cary. (1995). Lessons from the job wars: What is to be done? Academe,
Sharnoff, E. (1993). Neither fish nor fowl: Graduate students, unionization,
and the academy. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Modern Language
Association (Toronto, Ontario, Canada, December 27-30, 1993).
Streitz, D.S., & Hunkler, J.A. (1997). Teaching or learning: Are teaching
assistants students or employees? Journal of College and University Law 24(2),
Vaughn, W. (1998, Nov/Dec). Apprentice or employee? Graduate students and
their unions. Academe. 43 - 49.
Please note that this site is privately owned and is in no way related
to any Federal agency or ERIC unit. Further, this site is using a
privately owned and located server. This is NOT a government sponsored
or government sanctioned site. ERIC is a Service Mark of the U.S. Government.
This site exists to provide the text of the public domain ERIC Documents
previously produced by ERIC. No new content will ever appear here
that would in any way challenge the ERIC Service Mark of the U.S. Government.