ERIC Identifier: ED465504
Publication Date: 2001-11-00
Author: Lee, Hyonyong - Fortner, Rosanne W.
Clearinghouse for Science Mathematics and Environmental Education Columbus OH.
Resources for Teaching and Learning about Exotic Species. ERIC
Exotic species are organisms transported by humans, wildlife, wind, and water
into regions where they did not historically exist. On the other hand, native
organisms of North America are generally considered species that were
ecologically established prior to the time of European settlement (Pultz, 1995).
Considerable data from various scientific and commercial sources have provided
convincing evidence that all U.S. shores are impacted by exotic aquatic
invaders. For instance, the zebra mussel and green crab have had serious
ecological and socioeconomic impacts from the Great Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico,
and from the Atlantic to the Pacific oceans-and in rivers and lakes in between.
According to the Aquatic Nuisance Species (ANS) Task Force (2000), Great Lakes
water users spend tens of millions of dollars on zebra mussel control every
year. As a result of such consequences, the National Sea Grant College Program
and other organizations are very concerned with the increasing number of aquatic
exotic species. The full economic and ecological impacts of each exotic species
are continually under investigation.
EXOTIC AQUATICS CONTROL AND EDUCATION
Most exotic species
are both accidentally and intentionally spread by the human beings. For
instance, some species can be picked up and transported on boating equipment,
including trailers, motors, tackle, downriggers, anchors, axles, rollers, and
centerboards. Others can be carried in the water of livewells, baitbuckets,
motors, bilges, and transom wells (IISGCP, 1998). Since zebra mussels were first
discovered in Lake St. Clair in June 1988, they have spread to all five of the
Great Lakes and their connecting waterways, as well as inland lakes and rivers
across North America, primarily through water recreation pathways.
Even though there are artificial methods to control exotic aquatics,
including chemical, biological, mechanical and physical controls, educational
efforts can be the most important key to solving current and future problems. If
teachers and students, along with members of their communities, become more
knowledgeable about exotic species, it is then possible for individuals and
groups to make informed decisions about their behavior related to the
introduction and spread of exotic invaders (EATM, 2000).
As Haury and Milbourne (1999) described, the Internet can provide "a way to
break out of the school walls and engage students with people and resources
scattered around the world." With the Internet resources described here,
teachers can encourage increased student attention to aquatic invaders.
Furthermore, these key information sources can be used by science communicators,
parents, students, researchers, and other professionals who are making decisions
about their own lifestyles.
Exotic Aquatics on the Move
This site is based on a joint project of six Sea Grants
and six Geographic Alliances. Geographic information (origin &
distribution), educational resources, and picture collections will be very
helpful in teaching and learning about exotic aquatics.
Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force
Task Force is an intergovernmental organization dedicated to preventing and
controlling aquatic nuisance species, and implementing the Nonindigenous Aquatic
Nuisance Prevention and Control Act of 1990. This site provides useful
information related to the aquatic nuisance species task force and nonindigenous
Invasive Species Program: the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
site provides basic information and links to national strategy for management,
impact on public lands, education, outreach, and control of invasive species.
Sea Grant's National Aquatic Nuisance Species Clearinghouse
site provides North America's most extensive technical library of publications
related to the spread, biology, impacts and control of zebra mussels and other
important aquatic nuisance, non-indigenous and invasive species.
Sea Grant Nonindigenous Species: SGNIS
site contains a comprehensive collection of research publications and education
materials produced by Sea Grant programs and other research institutions across
the country about zebra mussels and other aquatic nuisance species.
Exotic Species Graphics Library: National Sea Grant Network
library contains slides of the following exotics: zebra mussel, goby, spiny
water flea, sea lamprey, ruffe, and purple loosestrife.
Bridge: Ocean Sciences Education Teacher Resource Center
site provides educators with content-correct & content-current marine
information and data. This site is designed to improve communications among
educators and between the education and research communities.
National Sea Grant: Nonindigenous Species Research and Outreach
site provides nonindigenous species research proposals, Sea Grant research, and
Exotics in the Chesapeake: Maryland Sea Grant
site explains the nature and potential impacts of nonindigenous species in the
Chesapeake Bay. The Maryland Sea Grant College has produced a series of videos
and fact sheets entitled "Exotics in the Chesapeake."
Exotic Species: Minnesota Sea Grant Program
site provides general information about zebra mussels (ID card), round goby (ID
card), ruffe (ID card) and purple loosestrife. The site includes a field guide
to aquatic exotic plants and animals, and other educational resources for
MIT Sea Grant Exotic Species Web Page
exotic species site from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Sea
Grant College Program provides an overview of marine bioinvaders, various links
and references of exotic species, and other useful information.
Aquatic Nuisance Species in Vermont
site presents information regarding aquatic nuisance species provided by the
Vermont Department of Environmental Conservation. Several species, included in
this site, are water chestnut, Eurasian watermilfoil, zebra mussel, and purple
Aquatics Exotics News
site presents Aquatics Exotics News provided by the Northeast Sea Grant programs
on the spread of non-indigenous aquatic nuisance species. The news is also
updated by the Sea Grant programs of Connecticut, Maine-New Hampshire, MIT, New
York, Rhode Island, and Woods Hole.
Exotic Fish, Shell Fish, & Plants: Texas Parks and Wildlife
site presents 'Fishing in Texas' provided by the Texas Parks and Wildlife
Commission. This site also provides regulations & information on Texas state
exotic, harmful, or potentially harmful fish, shellfish, or aquatic plants.
Exotic Species and Their Effects on the Great Lakes: Great Lakes Sport
site addresses the seriousness of the introduction of nonindigenous species into
our ecosystem. The Council has assembled a series of informational links to help
anglers learn more about the invasion of these unwanted exotics including round
goby, sea lamprey, spiny water flea, zebra mussel, ruffe, and purple
Fishery Management: Great Lakes Fishery Commission This site provides
information on fish harvest, habitat, exotic species as well as various
"Zebra Mussels: Lessons Learned in the
Great Lakes Region: Biology" (IISG-98-4, $7.50), Spread and Impact (IISG-98-5,
$7.50), "Control" (IISG-98-6, $7.50), "Outreach Tools" (IISG-98-7, $7.50),
Complete set of four videos (IISG-98-4S, $20); 1998; "Illinois-Indiana Sea Grant
College Program;" Order: http://www.iisgcp.org/pubs/br/vid.htm, ph (765)
494-3573, fax (765) 496-6026.
"Project TELLUS: Exotic Species Video Module;" LA Sea Grant College Program;
Order: http://www.laseagrant.org/index.html, ph (225) 578-1558, Pam Blanchard
([email protected]). Project TELLUS contains interactive video lessons for middle
school students on global change issues related to the Gulf of Mexico region.
The issues include biodiversity, exotic species, climatic change, water quality,
"Alien Ocean" (UM-SG-AV-97-01, $24.95, 30 min); 1997; Maryland Sea Grant;
Order: http://www.mdsg.umd.edu/store/videos.html, ph (301) 405-6371, fax (301)
"Exotics in the Chesapeake: Alien Estuary" (UM-SG-AV-99-01, $7.50, 12 min),
"Alien River" (UM-SG-AV-99-02, $5.00, 9 min); 1999; Maryland Sea Grant; Order:
http://www.mdsg.umd.edu/store/videos.html, ph (301) 405-6371, fax (301)
"Aquatic Exotics" (one free copy); 1996; Minnesota Department of Natural
Resources; Order: ph (612) 297-1464, (612) 296-2835.
"Stop Exotics Clean Your Boat" ($10, 11 min); 2000; Minnesota Sea Grant;
Order: http://www.seagrant.umn.edu/exotics/stop.html, ph (218) 726-6191.
"River Invaders: The Scourge of Zebra Mussels" ($24.95, 30 min); 1996;
Earthwave Society; Order: ph (817) 443-0258.
OTHER EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES
"Sea Grant Nonindigenous
Species" (SGNIS) CD; Minnesota Sea Grant Office; Order: ph (218) 726-6191. This
CD contains materials produced by Sea Grant programs and other research
institutions across the country. All research, education, and outreach
information has been peer reviewed to ensure it is the highest quality
scientific information available.
"Zebra Mussel Information System" (ZMIS) CD; the U.S. Army Corps of
Engineers; Order: ph (601) 634-2972, fax (601) 634-2398. This CD provides a wide
variety of information on zebra mussels. Information in the system includes
identification of both adults and immature's, life history, impact, monitoring
and detection, management strategies, contaminant issues as well as an extensive
"Zebra Mussel Mania Traveling Truck;" IL-IN Sea Grant; Order: ph (217)
333-4780, For truck loan, Contact: Pam Blanchard [LA Sea Grant College Program,
(225) 578-1558]. This education kit and curriculum offers ten activities
incorporating experiments, games, stories, community action projects, and other
hands-on activities to teach students in grades 3-8 about a wide range of
problems associated with zebra mussels and other aquatic exotics.
Mussel Menace! Zebra Mussels and You;" MN Sea Grant; Order: ph (218)
726-8712, $60. An educator's training package for teaching groups about zebra
mussels. This package contains a comprehensive guide, slide program, and a
Aquatic Nuisance Species (ANS) Task Force.
(2000). "What are aquatic nuisance species and their impacts?" Available online
at http://www.anstaskforce.gov/ansimpact.htm. (September, 8, 2000)
Exotic Aquatics on The Move (EATM). (2000). "Exotic aquatics on the move:
Project information." Available online at
http://ag.ansc.purdue.edu/EXOTICSP/project-info.htm. (September, 8, 2000)
Haury, D. L., & Milbourne, L. (1999, May). "Using the Internet to enrich
science teaching and learning." Columbus, OH: ERIC Clearinghouse for Science,
Mathematics, and Environmental Education. An ERIC Digest [ED 433 218]
Illinois-Indiana Sea Grant College Program (IISGCP). (1998). "Help prevent
the spread of aquatic exotic plants and animals" (IL-IN-SG-98-1). Urbana, IL:
Pultz, J. (1995). "Exotics of Lake Ontario" (New York Sea Grant Fact Sheet,
December 1995). Oswego, NY: New York Sea Grant