Publication Date: 2003-04-00
Author: Koszalka, Tiffany A
Source: ERIC Clearinghouse on Information & Technology
Reflection as a Critical Component of the Technology Adoption Process. ERIC Digest.
Although upwards of 99% of public schools are wired for some type of
Ely (1999) suggested that there are several conditions required to facilitate implementation of educational technologies into sustained practice. Educators must be dissatisfied with status quo, possess technology knowledge and skills, have access to technology resources, be provided with time and rewards for achievement, be directly involved with decisions and committed to technology integration, and have supportive leadership to effectively implement educational technologies into their classrooms.
Unfortunately, much of today's educational technology training tends to focus only on developing the skills and knowledge to operate new equipment (Ronnkvist, Dexter, & Anderson 2000). But, there is hope. Many researchers are reporting that adding reflection components to professional development programs helps educators attend to the conditions beyond skills development and move toward educational technology adoption (Collis, 1996; Ertmer, 2003; Geyer, 1997).
This Digest briefly reviews connections among the literature on the
ADOPTION OF INNOVATION
From the statistics presented above it is clear that adopting technologies
as a part of
THE VALUE OF REFLECTION
One of Dewey's (1933) basic assumptions was that learning improves to the degree that it arises out of the process of reflection. Reflection arises because the organism detects the appearance of incompatible factors within a situation then develops opposed responses in an attempt to further engage in and understand the situation, thereby constructing knowledge. Knowing therefore is not a process of registration or representation, but one of intervention. Knowledge is constructed, in part, through reflection, e.g., ongoing active, persistent, and thoughtful consideration and participation in a situation (Canning, 1991). The cycle of reflecting and constructing knowledge is thus determined by the changes one finds satisfactory about a new situation on the whole or by the discovery of new features that give the situation new meaning. Thus, reflection is important in encouraging educators (organisms) to explore the integration of new educational technologies (incompatible factors) into their current teaching practices (situation) to reduce the perception of incompatibility. Such reflections prompt educators to face personal and environmental constraints, incrementally develop new practices that led to successful implementation, and specify for themselves the relationships between theoretical benefits of an innovation and successful practice (Collis, 1996; Dias, 1999; Ertmer, 2003).
AN APPROACH TO PROMPTING REFLECTION
Structured guidance in the form of asking questions and providing reflection guidelines helps novice educators become more autonomous thinkers (Pultorak, 1996).
Structured, short, open-ended questions help educators move through
the stages of
They pay more attention to strategies of inquiring about their reasoning
AN EXAMPLE OF REFLECTIVE PRACTICE TO SUPPORT ADOPTION OF EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGIES
This example of a technology integration program uses reflective practice to engage educators in progressively more reflection and application activities during ongoing efforts to adopt newly acquired technologies. Through planned interactions with the new technologies and prompted reflection assessing this innovation in practice, it is expected that educators will develop strong reflective and technology integration techniques that become an everyday part of their teaching practices.
The training begins with presentations of models of best practices in
Next, educators are asked to reflect on their experiences with technology,
A critical opportunity is to follow the classroom trial immediately
with reflections on
The educators share their reflections during a follow-up session with
their peers and
As the process continues, educators are continually prompted to reflect
The most successful professional development sessions support educators in a cyclical reflective process to help them specify for themselves the relationship between the theoretical benefits of an innovation and successful practice (Collis, 1996; Dias, 1999; Ertmer, 2003; Wood & Bennett, 2000). Reflection that increasingly challenges educators to consider changes in their practices as part of adopting new innovations helps educators devised technology integration strategies that lend themselves to the to configuration of the classroom, enlist support to help develop necessary skills, and use technology-based resources that are accessible and appropriate to the classroom (Medeiros, 1999). Such reflective practice promotes understanding of underlying beliefs and their relationship to pedagogy (Canning, 1991) as well as helps educators identify and resolve issues associated with using educational technologies.
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Ely, D.P. (1999). Conditions that Facilitate the Implementation of Educational
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Geyer, R.W. (1997). Approaching ground zero with today's technology tools. "T.H.E. Journal," 25, 56-59.
Koszalka, T., Grabowski, B., & McCarthy, M. (2003). Reflection Through the ID-PRISM: A Teacher Planning Tool to Transform Classrooms into Web-Enhanced Learning Environments. "Journal of Teacher and Technology Education," 11(3), 349-378.
Lin, X. (2001). Reflective adaptation of a technology artifact: A case study of classroom change. "Cognition and Instruction," 19(4), 395-440. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. EJ 641 752).
Medeiros, R. (1999). Tech it out: Just say 'yes!' to technology. "Creative Classroom," 61-62.
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1994 to 2001." [Online] Available: http://nces.ed.gov//pubs2003/digest02/tables/dt419.asp
Pultorak, E.G. (1996). Following the developmental process of reflection
Putnam, R.W. (1991). Recipes and reflective learning: "What should prevent you from saying it that way?" In D.A. Sch%n (Ed.), "The Reflective Turn: Case Studies in and on Educational Practice." New York: Teachers College Press.
Rogers, E.M. (1995). "Diffusion of Innovations." (4th ed.). New York: Free Press.
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Schon, D.A. (1989). A symposium on Schon's concept of reflective practice: Critiques, commentaries, illustrations, quotations. "Journal of Curriculum and Supervision," 5(1), 6-9. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. EJ 397 698).
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