Publication Date: 2003-06-00
Author: Moskal, Barbara M
Source: ERIC Clearinghouse on Assessment and Evaluation
Developing Classroom Performance Assessments and Scoring Rubrics - Part I. ERIC Digest.
A difficulty that is faced in the use of performance assessments is determining how the students' responses will be scored. Scoring rubrics provide one mechanism for scoring student responses to a variety of different types of performance assessments. This two-part Digest draws from the current literature and the author's experience to identify suggestions for developing performance assessments and their accompanying scoring rubrics.
The suggestions are divided into five categories:
1) Writing Goals and Objectives,
"This Digest addresses the first two categories. Another Digest addresses
These categories guide the reader through the four phases of the classroom
The current article assumes that the reader has a basic knowledge of both performance assessments and scoring rubrics. If these assumptions are incorrect, the reader may wish to review prior articles on performance assessments and scoring rubrics before reading this article. Brualdi 's article (1998), "Implementing performance assessment in the classroom", provides an introduction to performance assessments and how they may be used in the classroom. Moskal (2000b) discusses the basics of scoring rubric development in her article, "Scoring Rubrics: What, When and How?" In the article "Designing scoring rubrics for your classroom," Mertler (2001) outlines how to develop and implement scoring rubrics in the classroom.
WRITING GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
Before a performance assessment or a scoring rubric is written or selected, the teacher should clearly identify the purpose of the activity. As is the case with any assessment, a clear statement of goals and objectives should be written to guide the development of both the performance assessment and the scoring rubric. "Goals" are broad statements of expected student outcomes and "objectives" divide the goals into observable behaviors (Rogers & Sando, 1996). Questions such as, "What do I hope to learn about my students' knowledge or skills?," "What content, skills and knowledge should the activity be designed to assess?," and "What evidence do I need to evaluate the appropriate skills and knowledge?", can help in the identification of specific goals and objectives.
Recommendations for writing goals and objectives:
1. The statement of goals and accompanying objectives should provide
a clear focus for both instruction and assessment. Another manner in which
to phrase this
2. Both goals and objectives should reflect knowledge and information that is worthwhile for students to learn. Both the instruction and the assessment of student learning are intentional acts and should be guided through planning. Goals and objectives provide a framework for the development of this plan. Given the critical relationship between goals and objectives and instruction and assessment, goals and objectives should reflect important learning outcomes.
3. The relationship between a given goal and the objectives that describe
Therefore, there should be a clear link between the statement of the
goal and the
4. All of the important aspects of the given goal should be reflected
5. Objectives should describe measurable student outcomes. Since objectives provide the framework for evaluation, they need to be phrased in a manner that specifies the student behavior that will demonstrate the attainment of the larger goal.
6. Goals and objectives should be used to guide the selection of an
Writing goals and objectives, at first, appears to be a simple. After
all, this process
DEVELOPING PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT
As the term suggests, performance assessments require a demonstration
Performance assessments can take on many different forms, which include written and oral demonstrations and activities that can be completed by either a group or an individual.
A factor that distinguishes performance assessments from other extended
Recommendations for developing performance assessments:
1. The selected performance should reflect a valued activity. According
2. The completion of performance assessments should provide a valuable
3. The statement of goals and objectives should be clearly aligned with the measurable outcomes of the performance activity. Once the task has been selected, a list can be made of how the elements of the task map into the desired goals and objectives. If it is not apparent as to how the students' performance will be mapped into the desired goals and objectives, then adjustments may need to be made to the task or a new task may need to be selected.
4. The task should not examine extraneous or unintended variables. Examine
the task and think about whether there are elements of the task that do
not map directly into the goals and objectives. Is knowledge required in
the completion of the task that is
5. Performance assessments should be fair and free from bias. The phrasing
of the task should be carefully constructed in a manner that eliminates
gender and ethnic
The recommendations provided above have been drawn from the broader literary base concerning the construction of performance assessments. The interested reader can acquire further details concerning the development process by consulting other articles that are available through this journal (i.e., Brualdi, 1998; Roeber, 1996; Wiggins, 1990) or books (e.g., Wiggins, 1993; 1998) that address this subject.
Boston, C. (Eds.). (2002). Understanding Scoring Rubrics. University of Maryland, MD: ERIC Clearinghouse on Assessment and Evaluation.
Brualdi, A. (1998). "Implementing performance assessment in the classroom."
Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 6(2) [On-line]. Available:
Mertler, C. A. (2001). "Designing scoring rubrics for your classroom."
Moskal, B. (2000a) "An Assessment Model for the Mathematics Classroom."
Moskal, B. (2000b). "Scoring Rubrics: What, When and How?" Practical
Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 7(3) [On-line]. Available:
Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory (2002). "Converting Rubric Scores to Letter Grades." In C. Boston's (Eds.), Understanding Scoring Rubrics (pp. 34-40). University of Maryland, MD: ERIC Clearinghouse on Assessment and Evaluation.
Perlman, C. (2002). "An Introduction to Performance Assessment Scoring Rubrics". In C. Boston's (Eds.), Understanding Scoring Rubrics (pp. 5-13). University of Maryland, MD: ERIC Clearinghouse on Assessment and Evaluation.
Rogers, G. & Sando, J. (1996). Stepping Ahead: An Assessment Plan Development Guide. Terra Haute, Indiana: Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology.
Rudner, L.M. & Schafer, W.D. (Eds.). (2002). What Teachers Need to Know about Assessment. Washington, DC: National Education Association.
Stiggins, R. (1994). Student-Centered Classroom Assessment. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.
Wiggins, G. (1990). "The case for authentic assessment." Practical Assessment,
Wiggins, G. (1993). Assessing Student Performances. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass
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