ERIC Identifier: ED304196
Publication Date: 1988-12-00
Author: Cohen, Arthur M.
Source: ERIC Clearinghouse for
Junior Colleges Los Angeles CA.
General Education and the Community College. ERIC Digest.
Two persistent ideas--general education and the community college--arose
simultaneously early in this century. The concept of a general education
curriculum took root as a reformation of the free elective system in
undergraduate education at the same time that the community college began to
thrive by accommodating the masses of students seeking postsecondary studies.
The progress of both of these reforms has been intertwined, although the
community college has been the more pervasive of the two. This Digest examines
the status of general education within the two-year college.
General education is the process of developing a
framework on which to place knowledge stemming from various sources. Its goals
are to help students think critically, develop values, understand traditions,
respect diverse cultures and opinions, and most important, put that knowledge to
use. It is holistic, not specialized; integrative, not fractioned; suitable less
for abstract contemplation than for application.
In general education, knowledge is power--the power of coping, understanding,
mastering the self and social interaction. General education is grounded in the
everyday affairs of a person: dealing with supervisors and co-workers, choosing
associates, coping with family problems, and spending leisure time in socially
desirable and personally satisfying ways.
The perennial issues in general education can be summed under three headings:
How should it be presented? Who should take it? and How will we know when it has
HOW SHOULD GENERAL EDUCATION BE PRESENTED
in the community college is furthered in the ways pervasive in all higher
education. Lists of noble outcomes are drawn up and published in the catalogs.
The "well-functioning citizen in a democracy," the person with a "satisfactory
home and family life" and "vocational adjustment" who applies "critical judgment
to social issues" is the desired outcome.
To attain these ends, most institutions rely on some type of course
distribution list with offerings arrayed under the major headings of science,
social science, humanities, and communication. Any number of particularized
courses may be listed in each category, and the courses may or may not
correspond with the others in the category. Students fulfill their general
education requirements, which usually total 30 of the 60 units required for an
associate degree, by taking two or three courses from each list.
A less widespread approach to general education requirements involves an
attenuated list of courses with not more than one or two choices in each broad
disciplinary category. Here the faculty members have come together to create
interdisciplinary courses with such titles as, "The Art of Being Human," as the
humanities requirement, and "The Nature of the Environment," as the science
requirement. For example, Kirkwood Community College (Iowa) has developed an
integrated humanities program to replace a previously offered set of
disconnected courses (1986). Valencia Community College (Florida) has developed
an interdisciplinary studies program based upon a two-year core curriculum
organized chronologically (Valencia Community College, 1984). Monroe Community
College's (New York) interdisciplinary program centers on human ecology
WHO SHOULD TAKE GENERAL EDUCATION COURSES
The role of the
community college in providing access to higher education for an adult
population that might otherwise not have the opportunity to attend college
supports the argument on behalf of general education for all students. General
education ensures literacy, and many community college students need such
instruction. Broad-scale courses in intercultural and social problems have
proved attractive for adults pursuing personal interests. Integrating the
humanities in occupational courses by teaching business ethics, languages, and
intercultural perspectives has proved useful.
The argument that some students want particular skills only and will not sit
still for general education can be accommodated by allowing such students to
take a limited number of courses. After having reached the limit, they are
prevented from registering until they have declared a curricular intention and
entered a program leading to an associate degree. If students are allowed to
take a random walk through the curriculum, with the college acting merely as a
passive resource, no form of general education can make headway.
Voicing a common misconception, Gaff (1983) speaks about community colleges
as institutions "designed to meet community needs" with students who "tend to be
vocationally oriented." These students "are interested in practical learning
rather than abstract thinking" (p.17). Even this characterization of community
colleges points toward general education. What does the community need more than
people who have a sense of historical continuity, a broad base of understanding,
and shared values? What is more vocationally valuable than a sense of the
subtleties of language and an appreciation of human diversity? What type of
learning has more practical use than knowing how to function in a complexity of
government regulations and corporate gigantism?
The most nagging questions of all come up when
educators seek ways of measuring the outcomes of general education. Since the
conceptual basis for general education rests on the students' action beyond the
walls of the institution, measurement is beyond the capacity of most colleges.
How do we know when a student will act as a responsible citizen? lead a
satisfying home life? adjust well in a job situation? apply critical judgment to
Can surrogate measures be imposed? Some moves in the direction of general
education competency requirements have been made, but few colleges have
installed them. General education does not lend itself to easily administered
and scored examinations. Faculty, who are rarely eager to yield the prerogatives
of the classroom to some examining committee, represent an additional barrier.
Perhaps most important, if some measure of student competency is a requisite for
demonstrating general education, then the students should be allowed to
demonstrate that ability whether or not they have enrolled in any of the general
The goals of general education parallel
socially supported values. The public, governmental agencies, and employers all
expect colleges to assist students in learning those skills and attitudes
necessary for participation in a democratic society. Survey after survey shows
that employers want workers who can understand written and verbal communication,
are aware of what is going on around them, know the rules of American society,
and have a sense for interpersonal relations. Governmental officials appreciate
people whose position on public issues stems from a base of information rather
than from temporal emotion. If general education is such a good idea, why is it
not more vigorously pursued?
Opposition to general education comes primarily from within the academy. The
organizational structure of the colleges, based on the university pattern of
academic departments, is antithetical to general education. The departments,
which offer convenient housings for scholars pursuing inquiry in specialized
disciplines, have little to do with teaching people to function effectively as
Some of the opposition is deliberate and purposeful, as when educators with a
genuine commitment to an academic or occupational specialization insist that
there is no time for students to study non-essential subjects. Some of it is
inadvertent, as when a commentator says that, as individuals with unique needs
and objectives, students should all choose their own lines of study, with
nothing required for everyone to learn. Some of these commentators dwell on the
ethnicity of the students as if it were somehow wrong to teach science to Black
students, social science to Asians, or English to Hispanics. Are members of
ethnic minorities not participants in the polity?
Nor have the universities been supportive. Numerous attempts to specify a
core of offerings acceptable to the senior institutions have yielded little.
California's efforts are illustrative; the University's Academic Senate approved
a "transfer core" curriculum but assured the faculty on each campus that it did
"not affect prerequisites for majors, or such upper-division courses as are
prescribed by differing campuses or programs" (Notice, 1988). Such caveats have
destroyed general education transfer plans repeatedly in one state after
CURRENT AND FUTURE STATUS
A few institutions have pursued
general education holistically. Los Medanos College (California) built generic
courses in behavioral, social, biological, and physical sciences and in language
arts and humanistic studies. Its general education plan is notable for the way
it was organized: there was administrative coordination of the curriculum; each
course was required for all degree-seeking students; the college employed a
full-time staff development officer to work closely with the faculty in
preparing the common course outlines. The result was that a college drawing its
student population predominantly from a low-socioeconomic-status community with
a high proportion of ethnic minorities sustained an integrated general education
curriculum (Collins and Drexel, 1976; Case, 1988).
The prognosis for general education is no better or worse than it has been at
any time in the community college's history. On the positive side are
contemporary moves toward teaching critical thinking and writing across the
curriculum. Anything that unifies and synthesizes the fragmented disciplinary
approach codified in academic departments is a move toward general education.
Steps toward institutional outcomes assessment also suggest general education
because any form of measurement that reaches across the student body touches on
general education principles. Statewide efforts to build a common core
curriculum across colleges or between community colleges and neighboring
universities is a third positive move.
General education would thrive most vigorously if the faculty were
reorganized so that the responsibility for it lay directly on one division. This
group would plan the integrative courses and present them in credit and
noncredit, academic transfer and occupational programs. It would also organize
the collegewide student assessments. General education needs its own home base.
Case, C.H. General education at Los Medanos College. Pittsburg, Calif.: Los Medanos College, 1988.
Collins, C.C., and Drexel, K.O. General Education:
A Community College Model. Pittsburg, Calif.: Community College Press, 1976.
Gaff, J.G. General
Education Today. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1983.
Harrison, J.D. "Changing
Tides and Liberal Studies." Journal of General Education, 1987, 38 (4), 262-71.
Kirkwood Community College. Strengthening
the Humanities: Kirkwood Community College. Cedar Rapids, Iowa: Kirkwood Community College, 1986. 31 pp. (ED 282 536)
"Transfer Core Curriculum, Aimed at Removing
Transfer Restrictions, Is Approved by Assembly." Notice, 1988, 12 (7), 1.
Valencia Community College.
Interdisciplinary Studies Program. Introduction to Teacher's Guide. Orlando, Fla.: Valencia Community College, 1984. 22 pp. (ED 245 768)