ERIC Identifier: ED318738
Publication Date: 1988-09-00
Author: Kauffman, Dagmar
Source: ERIC Clearinghouse on
Teacher Education Washington DC.
Successful Minority Teacher Education Recruitment Programs.
The critical shortage of Black, Hispanic, Asian, and Native American teachers
is well documented and has prompted the development of a number of recruitment
programs and activities. Presently, minorities make up only 10.3 percent of the
current 2.3 million public school teachers (Gerald, D.E. 1989), moreover, it is
projected that by the 1990s, minorities will constitute about 30 percent of the
population, but only 5 percent of the K-12 teaching force. In addition, very few
minorities are in the teacher education pipeline. The average school of
education has approximately 400 undergraduate and graduate students. Of this
number, only 22 are likely to be Black, 7 Hispanic, 3 Asian, and 2 Native
American (AACTE 1989). Further, research indicates that minority teachers are
much more likely to leave the teaching profession than are majority teachers
(Metropolitan Life Foundation 1988). This situation is particularly devastating
given the aging of the teaching force. Approximately 37 percent of Black and
Hispanic teachers have 20 or more years of teaching experience and will retire
earlier than their White counterparts, of whom only 30 percent have that much
experience (Metropolitan Life Foundation 1988). These and other factors will
continue to drain the supply of minority teachers. Consequently, action to
remedy this situation is necessary.
A review of the literature indicates that all components of the educational
culture have to initiate and participate in recruitment and retention programs
(Kuh and Whitt 1988). Schools, colleges, and departments of education have been
challenged to recruit and retain minority teachers (Willard 1987, Zimpher and
Yessayan 1987), as have public schools, some of which have implemented
professional teaching programs to "grow" their own teachers (Spuck 1987).
KEY ELEMENTS OF SUCCESS
A successful recruitment initiative
requires: concern and preparation to tackle the critical shortage; commitment to
the recruitment effort (i.e., capable leadership, sufficient allocation of
resources); collaboration among all parties involved in the effort (faculty,
students, parents, others); and creativity in developing the recruitment effort.
Whereas there is no perfect model, there are many strategies that different
institutions/agencies can effectively combine (AACTE 1989).
For several years, Norfolk State
University and the University of Kentucky have been sites for educational
conferences (Middleton, Mason, Barnard, and Bickel 1989). Educators and
administrators have convened there to discuss and exchange ideas about
alleviating the critical shortage of minority teachers. Representatives from
national education, community, and governmental agencies and organizations
participating in a 1987 Wingspread Conference issued a national action plan
calling for state and federal scholarship programs, early incentive programs,
support programs for reentry and career change, articulation programs between
two-year and four-year colleges, and induction programs (AACTE 1987 and Earley
SUCCESSFUL RECRUITMENT PROGRAMS
The following sample of
programs illustrates effective recruitment efforts that target various pools of
potential teacher candidates. The sample includes: secondary education programs
targeting junior and senior high school students; teaching profession magnet
programs; articulation programs between four- and two-year colleges for
community college students; and nontraditional programs preparing
nonprofessionals, retirees, and/or career changers to become teachers. (AACTE,
These successful recruitment programs represent different activities that
various institutions and agencies have employed in their minority teacher
recruitment efforts. Each institution and agency is concerned about the minority
teacher shortage and is committed to creating an effective recruitment effort.
All programs have been successful in recruiting and retaining minority persons
in the teaching profession.
SECONDARY EDUCATION PROGRAMS
Kean College of New Jersey
implemented the "Bridge Program," which recruits senior high school students,
who have an interest in a teaching career, from local public schools. During
their senior year, the students take ten transferable credits at the university.
Kean College provides financial aid, free tuition, books, and counseling in
college life. (For more information about this program, call 201-527-2136.)
California State University at Dominguez Hills operates "Saturday Program,"
an on-campus program introducing junior and senior high school students to
classroom teaching experiences. The students, who receive an hourly wage for
their work as teachers, enroll in a ten-week program that includes three weeks
of preparation and seven weeks of teaching elementary school students. (For more
information about this program, call 213-516-3519.)
TEACHING PROFESSION MAGNET PROGRAMS
Calvin Coolidge High
School in Washington, D.C., developed a college preparatory program for students
interested in an educational profession. The four-year program includes
specially designed education courses (District of Columbia Public Schools 1989).
The Crenshaw Training Academy in Los Angeles, California, and the Austin High
School for the Teaching Professions in Houston, Texas, also implemented teaching
magnet programs that provide core curricula emphasizing pedagogy, teaching
methodology, and practice. (For more information about these programs, call
Coolidge High School, 202-722-1656; Crenshaw Training Academy, 213-296-5370; and
Austin High School for the Teaching Professions, 713-923-7751.)
In addressing the role of two-year
colleges to attract students into the teaching profession (Woods and Williams
1987), Eastern Michigan University (EMU) recruits community college students and
prepares them to become teachers in urban schools. The two-year college students
receive credit for education courses taken at EMU and complete their education
at the university once they have met its admissions criteria. (For more
information about this program, call 313-487-1414.)
Faced with a shortage of teachers
who speak Spanish and English, Heritage College in Toppenish, Washington, and
the local school district established a career ladder program, "Project Future,"
for the district's teacher aides. To become certified professionals, the teacher
aides combine practical experience during the day with academic course work at
night. The aides take professional education classes with the conventional
education students. In addition, special classes are provided to meet other
training needs. The teacher aides continue to receive their salaries from the
school district, and the college provides reduced tuition rates. "Project
Future" teachers are assured employment in their school district when the
program is completed. (For more information about this program call
To alleviate the shortage of secondary science and mathematics teachers, the
National Executive Service Corps (NESC), a nonprofit organization, recruits and
prepares retired military and professional personnel to become teachers in
schools in New York City. NESC identifies qualified candidates interested in
science and mathematics by contacting various professional organizations'
membership lists of retirees. Program participants take a sequence of education
and content courses tailored to their individual needs at SUNY-Brooklyn College.
The courses satisfy certification requirements for New York State that enable
the program participants to teach once the program is completed. (For more
information about this program, call 212-529-6660.)
Many of the following references--those
identified with an EJ or ED number--have been abstracted and are in the ERIC
data base. The journal articles should be available at most research libraries.
The documents (citations with an ED number) are available on microfiche in ERIC
microfiche collections at more than 700 locations. Documents can also be ordered
through the ERIC Document Reproduction Service. Call (800) 227-3472 for
additional information. For a list of ERIC collections in your area or for
information on submitting documents to ERIC, contact the ERIC Clearinghouse on
Teacher Education, One Dupont Circle, NW, Suite 610, Washington, DC 20036; (202)
American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education. (1989) Teacher
Education Pipeline: SCDE Enrollments by Race/Ethnicity. Washington, DC:
American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education. (1988) Minority
Recruitment and Retention: A Public Policy Issue. AACTE Wingspread Proceedings
1987. Washington, DC: AACTE.
American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education. (1989) How To Recruit
Minority Teachers: A Practical Guide. Washington, DC: AACTE.
Dilworth, M. (1987-88, Sum.-Win.) Black Teachers: A Vanishing Tradition.
Urban League Review 11(1-2) 54-8. EJ 377 099.
District of Columbia Public Schools. The Coolidge High School for the
Teaching Professions Program. Washington, DC: D.C. Public Schools.
Dorsey-Gaines, C. and Lewis, B.J (1987, Sum.) How to Start a Minority
Program: A Case Study. Journal of College Admissions 116, 3-6. EJ 362 084.
Earley, P. (1987, Fall) State and Federal Report. Recruiting Minorities into
Teaching Careers. Teacher Education Quarterly 14 (4) 107-09. EJ 366 861.
Gerald, D.E., et al. (1989) State projections to 1993 for Public Elementary
and Secondary Enrollment, Graduates and Teachers. Washington, DC: NCES.
Kuh, G.D. and Whitt, E.J. (1988) The Invisible Tapestry: Culture in American
Colleges and Universities. ASHE--ERIC Higher Education Report 1988. HE 021 960.
Metropolitan Life Foundation. (1988) The American Teacher. New York, NY:
Metropolitan Life Foundation.
Middleton, E.J., Mason, E.J., Barnard, H.V., and Bickel, F. (1989) Building
Collaborative Relationships for the Recruitment and Retention of Minority
Students in Teacher Education (Third National Conference). Lexington, KY: Univ.
Rodman, B. (1988, May 1) In Houston Magnet, District "Grows" Its Own
Teachers. Education Week. 1.
Spuck, J. (1987, Oct.) This High School Grows Its Own Teachers. American
School Board Journal 174 (10) 39, 47.
Willard, J., and Gordon, B. (1986-87, Win.) New Challenges for Teacher
Preparation Institutions: Recruitment and Retention. Action in Teacher Education
8,(4) 19-24. EJ 348 326.
Woods, J.E., and Williams, R.A. (1987, Aug. 5-7) Articulating with Two-Year
Colleges to Create a Multiethnic Teaching Force. Paper commissioned for the
American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education's Wingspread Policy
Forum. (Racine, WI) ED 295 932.
Zimpher, N., and Yessayan, S. (1987, Fall) Recruitment and Selection of
Minority Populations into Teaching. Metropolitan Education 5, 57-71. EJ 372 836.