ERIC Identifier: ED296766
Publication Date: 1988-04-00
Author: Mabry, Theo N.
Source: ERIC Clearinghouse for
Junior Colleges Los Angeles CA.
Alternative Scheduling. ERIC Digest.
Alternative scheduling provides community colleges with a means of adapting
to declining enrollments, fiscal exigencies, and the demand for accountability
to students. Strategies such as departing from traditional semester- or
quarter-length courses and developing weekend programs have been implemented at
certain institutions to attract new segments of the population to college
attendance. Other options, such as lengthening class periods or shortening the
school week, have been pursued to reduce instructional costs for students and/or
This digest reviews a sample of current alternative scheduling practices and
ALTERNATIVE SEMESTER LENGTHS
While in the process of
considering or implementing calendar changes, several colleges conducted studies
of the relative effectiveness of various academic calendars for promoting
student progress, faculty success, staff performance, and cost-effectiveness.
Many colleges resisted calendar changes, finding them administratively
impractical, opposed by faculty or students, or disruptive or students' summer
employment needs. Others replaced their existing academic calendars in favor of
semester, trimester, early start of quarter systems.
The Coast Community College District, rather than offering all courses under
any one academic calendar, currently offers selected courses on four alternative
o The regular 18-week semester which begins in mid-August and
finishes prior to the winter holidays.
o A 15-week semester, which begins three weeks after and ends
at the same time as the 18-week term. The courses offered
under this schedule meet for 30 minutes more each week than
their 18-week counterparts.
o A nine-week semester in which classes meet for six rather
than three hours per week.
o A nine-week semester which covers half of the content and
earns half of the course credit of the normal semester
which awards three units per course.
Though the nine- and 15-week schedule were designed to serve and attract
non-traditional students, the findings of studies (Crow, 1984a and 1984b)
conducted to develop a profile of the characteristics and objectives of the
students who chose the alternative options revealed:
o 54% of the students on the 15-week schedule were between 18
and 21 years of age, while 40% were over 21. In the 9-week
classes, 44% were between 18 and 21, and 52% were over 21.
o The 15-week course in particular was designed with mothers
of school-age children in mind. However, over 80% of the
students selecting one of the alternative options had no
o Over 50% of the students enrolled in one of the alternative
schedules were also enrolled in courses offered on the
traditional 18-week term.
o A significant proportion of the students (36% of those on
the 15-week schedule and 31% of those on one of the
nine-week schedules) indicated that they would not be attending
Orange Coast College had these class schedules not been
Since the early 1970's, various two-year
colleges have offered weekend courses. Pikes Peak Community College initiated
its "weekend college" in 1981 as part of its continuing education program
(Kline, 1984). Faculty and administrators at the college identified five major
advantages to a weekend schedule:
o Classes are held in existing facilities that are fully
scheduled during the regular week, so that the only
additional cost is a minimal outlay for janitorial service and
o The weekend classes do not take students from weekday
classes, but instead add additional students to the total
o For students who are enrolled in regular weekly classes,
the weekend college provides an alternative schedule for
completing required courses.
o The weekend program allows for flexibility in scheduling
full-and part-time instructors.
o Necessary auxiliary instructional materials and
audio-visual equipment are readily available.
In 1976, when William Rainey Harper College investigated the effects of
weekend scheduling on students' academic achievement, they found that weekend
students tended to have higher withdrawal rates than weekday or evening
students, but that they rated their courses as more beneficial and earned higher
grades. Many indicated that they would have rather taken the courses at other
times, and most felt that additional campus services should be available to them
on the weekends (Lucas, 1976).
Milwaukee Area Technical College's "1986 Student Survey Report" highlighted
the distinguishing characteristics of their weekend college students (Redovich,
1986). The study revealed that students taking courses on weekends were, in
comparison to day or evening students:
o older (an average of 32.6 years compared to 30.5 years
for evening students and 25.1 years for day students)
o more likely to have dependent children and be interested
in child care services
o less likely to be minority group members
o less likely to receive financial aid
LENGTHENING CLASS PERIODS
In an effort to conserve energy
and reduce student travel to campus, Harford Community College substituted
75-minute classes twice a week and 150-minute classes once a week for regular
50-minute classes meeting three times a week. A survey of faculty and student
reactions to the change revealed that: (1) the average credit load fell only 1%;
(2) the mean number of student trips per week to campus decreased from 3.79 to
3.42; (3) both faculty and students preferred 75-minute classes to 150-minute
classes; (4) 51% of the students preferred the new schedule to the old; and (5)
the majority of the students felt that their work schedule, free time, and
extracurricular activities were unaffected or enhanced by the new schedule.
While some colleges are implementing weekend
courses to attract new students, colleges in many parts of the country have
shifted to shortened work weeks to reduce cost. Both Oklahoma City Community
College (Shirazi, 1983) and the College of DuPage (Wallace, 1981) implemented
four-day instructional weeks during summer sessions with positive outcomes,
o a significant reduction in electrical usage.
o savings from reduced building maintenance in excess of
$23,000 at the College of DuPage.
o cost savings resulting form a reduction in miles
driven by students and staff
o positive reaction from students. At Oklahoma City Community College 25% of the students indicated that their academic performance, study time, and commuting time had been affected for the better. At the College of DuPage, 72% of the students preferred the four-day schedule. Variations in
the academic calendar are not the only way of enhancing productivity, but they
can be effective. They attract new students and increase space utilization, all
at practically no cost. College planners who seek ways of maintaining
enrollments should consider the implementation of various approaches to program
Crow, Michael G. "Student Survey--Late Start Classes." Costa Mesa, Calif.: Orange Coast College, 1984a.
Crow, Michael G. "Student Survey--Nine Week
Classes." Costa Mesa, Calif.: Orange Coast College, 1984b.
Kline, Lois Twombly. Communication on the
Weekend: One Cost Saving, Energy Saving, People Saving Idea. Colorado Springs, Colo.: Pike's Peak Community College, 1984. 6p. (ED 242 372)
Murphy, Michael T.; And Others.
Policy Analysis: The Effect of the New Scheduling System on Student Trips to Campus and Other Relevant Variables. Bel Air, Md.: Harford Community College, 1983. 11p. (ED 223 306)
Redovich, Dennis. Report of the Student Evaluation of the
Milwaukee Area Technical College, 1986 Student Survey Report. Milwaukee: Milwaukee Area Technical College, 1986. 95p. (ED 272 261)
Shirazi, Annmarie. Report on
the Summer 1983 Alternate Work Schedule. Oklahoma City: Oklahoma City Community College, 1983. 7p. (ED 258 673)
Wallace, Carol C. "Academic Effects and Cost Benefits of a Four-Day Week atCollege of DuPage." 25p. (ED 205 100)